References (for on-line papers on asthma and genetics)

  1. Aalen OO, Borgan (1980): Interaction between life history events, nonparametric analysis for prospective and retrospective data in the presence in censoring. Scand J Statist 7: 161--171.
  2. Abel L, Bonney GE (1990): A time-dependent logistic hazard function for modelling variable age of onset in analysis of familial diseases. Genet Epidemiol 7: 391--407.
  3. Aberg (1989): Asthma and allergic rhinitis in Swedish conscripts. Clin Exp Allergy 19: 59--63.
  4. Aberg (1993): Familial occurrence of atopic disease: genetic versus environmental factors. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 829--834.
  5. Abramson MJ, Harrap SB (1998): The new asthma genetics and its implications for public health.. Public Health Rev 26: 127--144.
  6. Abramson MJ, Hensley MJ, Saunders NA, Wlodarczyk JH (1991): Evaluation of a new asthma questionnaire. J Asthma 28: 129--139.
  7. Abramson MJ, Saunders NA, Hensley MJ (1990): Analysis of bronchial reactivity in epidemiological studies. Thorax 45: 924--929.
  8. Adra CN, Mao XQ, Kawada H, Gao PS, Korzycka B, Donate JL, Shaldon SR, Coull P, Dubowitz M, Enomoto T, Ozawa A, Syed SA, Horiuchi T, Khaeraja R, Khan R, Lin SR, Flinter F, Beales P, Hagihara A, Inoko H, Shirakawa T, Hopkin JM (1999): Chromosome 11q13 and atopic asthma.. Clin Genet 55: 431--437.
  9. Agosti JM, Sprenger JD, Lum LG, Witherspoon RP, Fisher LD, Storb R et al (1988): Transfer of allergen-specific IgE-mediated hypersensitivity with allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. New Engl J Med 319: 1623--8.
  10. Aitken AC (1934): Notes on selection from a multivariate normal population. Proc Edin Math Soc 4: 106--110.
  11. Akolkar PN, Gulwani-Akolkar B, Robinson M-A, Silver J (1995): The influence of non-HLA genes on the human T-cell receptor repertoire. Scand J Immunol 42: 248--256.
  12. Albers W (1991): Comparing survival curves using rank tests. Biom J 2: 163--172.
  13. Albuquerque RV, Hayden CM, Palmer LJ, Laing IA, Rye PJ, Gibson NA, Burton PR, Goldblatt J, Lesouef PN (1998): Association of polymorphisms within the tumour necrosis factor (TNF) genes and childhood asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 578--584.
  14. Allauzen S, Blocki F, Pierson-Mullany L, Jackola D, Dalan D, Larue C, Blumenthal M, Rosenberg A (1999): Expression of IgH chain genes in antibody response to ragweed and purified Amb a 1: evidence for differential regulation of isotype production.. Mol Immunol 36: 587--598.
  15. Allen G, Hrubec Z (1979): Twin concordance. A more general model. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 28: 3--13.
  16. Alton EW, Griesenbach U, Geddes DM (1999): Gene therapy for asthma: inspired research or unnecessary effort?. Gene Ther 6: 155--156.
  17. Amelung PJ, Postma DS, Xu J, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER (1998): Exclusion of chromosome 11q and the FcepsilonRI-beta gene as aetiological factors in allergy and asthma in a population of Dutch asthmatic families [see comments]. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 397--403.
  18. Amelung PJ, Panhuysen CIM, Postma DS, Levitt RC, Koeter GH, Francomanos CA, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA (1992): Atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness: exclusion of linkage to markers on chromosomes 11q and 6p. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1077--1084.
  19. American College of Chest Physicians (1974): Criteria for the assessment of reversibility in airways obstruction: report of the Committee on Emphysema. Chest 65: 552--553.
  20. American Thoracic Society (1981): ATS Statement - Snowbird workshop on standardisation of spirometry. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 124.
  21. American Thoracic Society (1987): Standardization of spirometry - 1987 update. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 1285--1298.
  22. American Thoracic Society (1987): Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 225--244.
  23. American Thoracic Society (1991): Lung function testing: selection of reference values and interpretive strategies. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 1202--1218.
  24. Amirav I, Dowdeswell R, Webster T, Plit M (1993): Exercise, regardless of induced bronchoconstriction or inspired air conditions, does not alter airway reactivity. Chest 104: 171--174.
  25. Amos CI, Elston RC, Bonney GE, Keats BJB, Bereson GS (1990): A multivariate method for detecting genetic linkage, with application to a pedigree with an adverse lipoprotein phenotype. Am J Hum Genet 47: 247--54.
  26. Anderson GG, Cookson WO (1999): Recent advances in the genetics of allergy and asthma.. Mol Med Today 5: 264--273.
  27. Arlian LG, Bernstein D, Bernstein IL, Friedman S, Grant A, Lieberman P et al (1992): Prevalence of dust mites in the homes of people with asthma living in eight different geographic areas of the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 292--300.
  28. Arm JP, Horton CE, Mencia-Huerta J-M, House F, Eiser NM, Clark TJH (1988): Effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil lipids on mild asthma. Thorax 43: 84--92.
  29. Aron Y, Busson M, Polla BS, Dusser D, Lockhart A, Swierczewski E, Favatier F (1999): Analysis of hsp70 gene polymorphism in allergic asthma.. Allergy 54: 165--170.
  30. Aron Y, Polla BS, Bienvenu T, Dall'ava J, Dusser D, Hubert D (1999): HLA class II polymorphism in cystic fibrosis. A possible modifier of pulmonary phenotype.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159: 1464--1468.
  31. Aron Y, Desmazes-Dufeu N, Matran R, Polla BS, Dusser D, Lockhart A, Swierczewski E (1996): Evidence of a strong, positive association between atopy and the HLA class II alleles DR4 and DR7. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 821--828.
  32. Arshad SH, Stevens M, Hide DW (1993): The effect of genetic and environmental factors on the prevalence of allergic disorders at the age of two years. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 504--511.
  33. Asher MI, Pattemore PK, Harrison AC (1988): International comparison of the prevalence of asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 138: 524--429.
  34. Auerbach I, Springer C, Godfrey S (1993): Total population survey of the frequency and severity of asthma in 17 year old boys in an urban area in Israel. Thorax 48: 139--141.
  35. Austin MA, King M-C, Bawol RD, Hulley SB, Friedman GD (1987): Risk factors for coronary heart disease in adult female twins. Am J Epidemiol 125: 308--318.
  36. Awotedu AA, Adelaja AB (1990): Alpha-1-antitrypsin levels and prevalence of Pi variant phenotypes in adult Nigerian asthmatics. Afr J Med Med Sci 19: 285--290.
  37. Bahna SL (1983): Concordances in atopic twins [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 100.
  38. Bahna SL (1989): A 21-year salute to IgE. Ann Allergy 62: 471--478.
  39. Baptista J, Pike MC (1985): AS115: exact two-sided confidence limits for the odds ratio. Appl Statist 26: 214--220.
  40. Barbee RA, Halonen M, Kaltenborn WT, Burrows B (1991): A longitudinal study of respiratory symptoms in a community population sample. Correlations with smoking, allergen skin-test reactivity and serum IgE. Chest 99: 20--26.
  41. Barker AF, Hirshman CA, D'Silva R, Hanifin JM (1991): Airway responsiveness in atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 87: 780--783.
  42. Barnes KC, Freidhoff LR, Nickel R, Chiu YF, Juo SH, Hizawa N, Naidu RP, Ehrlich E, Duffy DL, Schou C, Levett PN, Marsh DG, Beaty TH (1999): Dense mapping of chromosome 12q13.12-q23.3 and linkage to asthma and atopy.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104: 485--491.
  43. Barnes KC, Neely JD, Duffy DL, Freidhoff LR, Breazeale DR, Schou C et al (1996): Linkage of asthma and total serum IgE concentration to markers on chromosome 12q: evidence from Afro-Caribbean and Caucasian populations. Genomics 37: 41--50.
  44. Barnes PJ (1990): Muscarinic receptors in airways: recent developments. J Appl Physiol 68: 1777--1785.
  45. Barter PJ (1991): High density lipoproteins and coronary heart disease. Aust NZ J Med 21: 299--231.
  46. Bazaral M, Orgel HA, Hamburger RN (1974): Genetics of IgE and allergy: serum IgE levels in twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 5: 228--304.
  47. Beard LJ, Maxwell GM, Thong YH (1981): Immunocompetence of children with frequent respiratory infections. Arch Dis Child 56: 101--105.
  48. Beasley R, Roche WR, Roberts JA, Holgate ST (1989): Cellular events in the bronchi in mild asthma and after bronchial provocation. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 806--817.
  49. Beasley R, Smith K, Pearce N, Crane J, Burgess C, Culling C (1990): Trends in asthma mortality in New Zealand, 1908-1986. Med J Aust 152: 570--573.
  50. Beaty TH (1998): Using association studies to test for gene-environment interaction asthma and other complex diseases.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 68--73.
  51. Beaumont F, Kauffman HF, Sluiter HJ, De Vries K (1985): Sequential sampling of fungal air spores inside and outside the homes of mould-sensitive astmatic patients: a search for a relationship to obstructive reactions. Ann Allergy 55: 740--746.
  52. Becker KG, Simon RM, Bailey-Wilson JE, Freidlin B, Biddison WE, McFarland HF, Trent JM (1998): Clustering of non-major histocompatibility complex susceptibility candidate loci in human autoimmune diseases.. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95: 9979--9984.
  53. Bedford A, Foulds GA, Sheffield BF (1976): A new personal disturbance scale (DDSI/SAD). Br J Soc Clin Psychiatry 15: 387--394.
  54. Bellamy N, Duffy D, Martin NG, Mathews JD (1992): Rheumatoid arthritis in twins: a study of aetiopathogenesis based on the Australian Twin Registry. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 51: 588--593.
  55. Benbow CP (1986): Physiological correlates of extreme intellectual precocity. Neuropsychologica 24: 719--725.
  56. Bener A, Huda S (1987): Maximum likelihood estimation of components of variance and correlations in the analysis of family data. Ann Hum Genet 51: 259--264.
  57. Benessiano J, Crestani B, Mestari F, Klouche W, Neukirch F, Hacein-Bey S et al (1997): High frequency of a deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99: 53--7.
  58. Benveniste J, Henson PM, Cochrane CG (1972): Leukocyte-dependent histamine release from rabbit platelet: the role of IgE, basophils, and a platelet-activating factor. J Exp Med 136: 1365--1376.
  59. Berger W, Pollock J, Kiechel F, Dunning M, Pearlman D (1978): Immunoglobulin levels in children with chronic severe asthma. Ann Allergy 41: 67--71.
  60. Bhoola KD, Figueroa CD, Worthy K (1992): Bioregulation of kinins: kallikreins, kininogens and kininases. Pharmacol Rev 44: 1--80.
  61. Bibi H, Schlesinger M, Tabachnik F, Schwartz Y, Iscovitz H, Iaina A (1988): Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy 61: 339--340.
  62. Bieber T, de la Salle H, Wollenberg A, Hakimi J, Chizzonite R, Ring J et al (1992): Human epidermal Langherhans cells express the high affinity receptor for immunoglobulin E (FcnRI). J Exp Med 175: 1285--1290.
  63. Bignon JS, Aron Y, Ju LY, Kopferschmitt MC, Garnier R, Mapp C et al (1994): HLA Class II alleles in isocyanate-induced asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 149: 71--75.
  64. Blackwelder WC, Elston RC (1985): A comparison of sib-pair linkage tests for disease susceptibility loci. Genet Epidemiol 2: 85--97.
  65. Bland M, Bewley BR, Pollard V, Banks MH (1978): Effect of children's and parents' smoking on respiratory symptoms. Arch Dis Child 53: 100--105.
  66. Bleecker ER (1998): Mapping susceptibility genes for asthma and allergy.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 5: 6--12.
  67. Blumenthal MN, Rich SS, King R, Weber J (1998): Approaches and issues in defining asthma and associated phenotypes map to chromosome susceptibility areas in large Minnesota families. The Collaborative Study for the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA).. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 51--55.
  68. Blumenthal MN, Marcus-Bagley D, Awdeh Z, Johnson B, Yunis EJ, Alper CA (1992): HLA-DR2 (HLA-B7, SC31, DR2), and (HLA-B8, SC01, DR3) haplotypes distinguish subjects with asthma from those with rhinitis only in ragweed pollen allergy. J Immunol 148: 411--416.
  69. Blumenthal MN, Namboodiri K, Mendell N, Gleich G, Elston RC, Yunis E (1981): Genetic transmission of serum IgE levels. Am J Med Genet 10: 219--228.
  70. Blumenthal MN, Wang Z, Weber JL, Rich SS (1996): Absence of linkage between 5q markers and serum IgE levels in four large atopic families. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 892--896.
  71. Boguniewicz M, Jaffe HS, Izu A, Sullivan MJ, York D, Geha RS et al (1988): Recombinant gamma interferon in treatment of patients with atopic dermatitis and elevated IgE levels. Am J Med 88: 365--370.
  72. Bonini S, Ruffilli A (1998): The genetics of atopy.. Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung 45: 3--13.
  73. Bonini S, Rasi G, Trill ME, Franci A (1983): Atopy in twins [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 100.
  74. Bonnevie K (1924): Studies on papillary patterns of human fingers. J Genet 15: 1--111.
  75. Bonney GE (1984): On the statistical determination of major gene mechanisms in continuous human traits: regressive models. Am J Hum Genet 18: 731--749.
  76. Bonney GE (1986): Regressive logistic models for familial disease and other binary traits. Biometrics 42: 611--625.
  77. Borecki IB, Rao DC, Lalouel JM, McGue M, Gerrard JW (1985): Demonstration of a common major gene with pleiotropic effects on Immunoglobulin E levels and allergy. Genet Epidemiol 2: 327--338.
  78. Borish L (1999): Genetics of allergy and asthma.. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 82: 413--424.
  79. Borish LC, Mascali JJ, Klinnert M, Leppert M, Rosenwasser LJ (1994): Polymorphisms in the chromosome 5 gene cluster [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 220.
  80. Bosken CH, Wiggs BR, Pare PD, Hogg JC (1990): Small airway dimension in smokers with obstruction to airflow. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 563--569.
  81. Bousquet J, Chanez P, Lacoste JY, Barneon G, Ghavanian N, Enander I et al (1990): Eosinophilic inflammation in asthma. New Engl J Med 323: 1033--1039.
  82. Bousquet J, Kjellman N-IM (1986): Predictive value of tests in childhood allergy. J Allergy CLin Immunol 78: 1019--1022.
  83. Brand PLP, Kerstjens HAB, Jansen HM, Kauffman HF, de Monchy JGR, the Dutch CNSLD group (1993): Interpretation of skin tests to house dust mite and relationship to other allergy parameters in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91: 560--570.
  84. Brand PLP, Postma DS, Kerstjens HAM, Ko ter GH, the Dutch CNSLD Study Group (1991): Relationship of airway hyperresponsiveness to respiratory symptoms and diurnal peak flow variation in patients with obstructive lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 916--921.
  85. Brenner-Ullman A, Melzer Ofir H, Daniels M, et al (1994): Possible protection against asthma in heterozygotes for familial Mediterranean fever. Am J Med Genet 53: 172--5.
  86. Brereton HM, Ruffin RE, Thompson PJ, Turner DR (1994): Familial atopy in Australian pedigrees: adventitious linkage to chromosome 8 is not confirmed nor is there evidence of linkage to the high affinity IgE receptor. Clin Exp Allergy 24: 868--877.
  87. Brown LK (1991): Pulmonary function testing in bronchial asthma: standard and emerging techniques. Mt Sinai J Med 58: 507--520.
  88. Brown MB, Benedetti JK (1977): On the mean and variance of the tetrachoric correlation coefficient. Psychometrika 42: 347--355.
  89. Bruderman I, Cohen R, Schachter J (1990): Bronchial response to methacholine in "healthy" children of asthmatic parents. Chest 97: 285--287.
  90. Brugman SM, Larsen GL, Henson PM, Honor J, Irvin CG (1993): Increased lower airways responsiveness associated with sinusitis in a rabbit model. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 314--320.
  91. Brunekreef B, Groot B, Hoek G (1992): Pets, allergy and respiratory symptoms in children. Int J Epidemiol 21: 338--342.
  92. Brunekreef B, Groot B, Rijcken B, Hoek G, Steenbekkers A, de Boer A (1992): Reproducibility of childhood respiratory symptoms questions. Eur Respir J 5: 930--935.
  93. Buijs J, Borsboom G, Renting M, Hilgersom WJA, van Wieringen JC, Jansen G et al (1997): Relationship between allergic manifestations and Toxocara seroposivity: a cross sectional study among elementary school children. Eur Respir J 10: 1467--1475.
  94. Buist AS (1989): Asthma mortality: what have we learned. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84: 275--283.
  95. Buist AS, Sexton GJ, Azzam A-MH, Adams BE (1979): Pulmonary function in heterozygotes for alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: a case-control study. Am Rev Respir Dis 120: 759--766.
  96. Burastero SE, Fenoglio D, Crimi E, Brusasco V (1993): Frequency of allergen-specific T lymphocytes in blood and bronchial response to allergen in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91: 1075--1081.
  97. Burchard EG, Silverman EK, Rosenwasser LJ, Borish L, Yandava C, Pillari A, Weiss ST, Hasday J, Lilly CM, Ford JG, Drazen JM (1999): Association between a sequence variant in the IL-4 gene promoter and FEV(1) in asthma.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160: 919--922.
  98. Burney PG (1987): The causes of asthma - does salt potentiate bronchial activity? discussion paper. J R Soc Med 80: 364--367.
  99. Burney PG, Britton JR, Chinn S, Tattersfield AE, Papacosta AO, Kelson MC et al (1987): Descriptive epidemiology of bronchial reactivity in an adult population: results from a community study. Thorax 42: 38--44.
  100. Burney PG, Britton JR, Chinn S, Tattersfield AE, Platt HS, Papacosta AO et al (1986): Response to inhaled histamine and 24 hour sodium excretion. Brit Med J 292: 1483--1486.
  101. Burney PG, Chinn S, Britton JR, Tattersfield AE, Papacosta AO (1989): What symptoms predict the bronchial response to histamine? Evaluation of a community survey of the Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire (1984) of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. Int J Epidemiol 18: 165--173.
  102. Burney PGJ, Chinn S, Rona RJ (1990): Has the prevalence of asthma increased in children? Evidence from the national study of health and growth 1973-1986. Br Med J 300: 1306--1310.
  103. Burney PGJ, Laitinen LA, Perdrizet S, Huckauf H, Tattersfield AE, Chinn S et al (1989): Validity and repeatability of the IUATLD (1984) Bronchial Symptoms Questionnaire: an international comparison. Eur Resp J 2: 940--945.
  104. Burr ML, Butland BK, King S, Vaughan-Williams E (1989): Changes in asthma prevalence: two surveys 15 years apart. Arch Dis Child 64: 1452--1456.
  105. Burr ML, Limb ES, Maguire MJ, Amarah L, Eldridge BA, Layzell JCM et al (1993): Infant feeding, wheezing and allergy: a prospective study. Arch Dis Child 68: 724--728.
  106. Burrows B, Lebowitz MD, Barbee RA, Cline MG (1991): Findings before diagnoses of asthma among the elderly in a longitudinal study of a general population sample. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88: 870--877.
  107. Burrows B, Martinez FD, Cline MG, Lebowitz MD (1995): The relationship between parental and children's serum IgE and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 152: 1497--1500.
  108. Burrows B, Martinez FD, Halonen M, Barbee RA, Cline MG (1989): Association of asthma with serum IgE levels and skin-test reactivity to allergens. New Engl J Med 320: 271--277.
  109. Busaniche H, Neffen H, Crisci C, Ya$ez A (1985): Correlation between IgA, secretory IgA and total IgE in asthmatic and rhinitic patients [abstract]. Ann Allergy 55: 363.
  110. Busse WW (1990): Respiratory infections: their role in airway responsiveness and the pathogenesis of asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85: 671--683.
  111. Caraballo LR, Hernandez M (1990): HLA haplotype segregation in families with allergic asthma. Tissue Antigens 35: 182--186.
  112. Carbonara AO, Ceppellini R, Yount W, Landucci S (1970): The serum IgE level in human twins. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 19: 238.
  113. Carey OJ, Locke C, Cookson JB (1993): Effect of alteration of dietary sodium on the severity of asthma in men. Thorax 48: 714--718.
  114. Carter CO (1961): The inheritance of congenital pyloric stenosis. Brit Med Bull 17: 251--254.
  115. Cartier A, Grammer L, Malo J-L, Lagier F, Ghezzo H, Harris K et al (1989): Specific serum antibodies against isocyanates: association with occupational asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 84: 507--514.
  116. Casolaro V, Spadaro G, Marone G (1990): Human basophil releasability. VI. Changes in basophil releasability in patients with allergic rhinitis or bronchial asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1108--1111.
  117. Castro J, Telleria JJ, Blanco-Quiros A, Linares P, Andion R (1998): Lack of association between atopy and RsaI polymorphism within intron 2 of the Fc(epsilon)RI-beta gene in a Spanish population sample.. Allergy 53: 1083--1086.
  118. Chagani T, Pare PD, Zhu S, Weir TD, Bai TR, Behbehani NA, Fitzgerald JM, Sandford AJ (1999): Prevalence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and angiotensin converting enzyme polymorphisms in mild/moderate and fatal/near-fatal asthma.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160: 278--282.
  119. Chai H, Farr RS, Froehlich LA, Mathison DA, McLean JA, Rosenthal RR et al (1975): Standardization of bronchial inhalation challenge procedures. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 323--327.
  120. Chakraborty R, Weiss KM, Majumder P, Strong LC, Herson J (1984): A method to detect excess risk of disease in structured data: cancer in relatives of retinoblastoma patients. Genet Epidemiol 1: 229--244.
  121. Chapman MD, Pollart SM, Luczynska CM, Platt-Mills TAE (1988): Hidden allergic factors in the etiology of asthma. Chest 94: 185--190.
  122. Chase GA, Folstein MF, Breitner JCS, Beaty TH, Self SG (1983): The use of life tables and survival analysis in testing genetic hypotheses, with an application to Alzheimer's disease. Am J Epidemiol 117: 590--597.
  123. Cherny SS, DeFries JC, Fulker DW (1992): Multiple regression analysis of twin data: a model-fitting approach. Behav Genet 22: 489--498.
  124. Chevenix-Trench G, Jones K, Green AC, Duffy DL, Martin NG (1992): Cleft lip with or without cleft palate: associations with Transforming Growth Factor Alpha and retinoic acid. Am J Hum Genet 51: 1377--1385.
  125. Chinn S, Britton JR, Burney PGJ, Tattersfield AE, Papacosta AO (1987): Estimability and repeatability of the response to inhaled histamine in a community survey. Thorax 42: 45--52.
  126. Chinn S, Burney PGJ, Britton JR, Tattersfield AE, Higgins BG (1993): Comparison of PD20 with two alternative measures of response to histamine challenge in epidemiological studies. Eur Resp J 6: 670--679.
  127. Church MK, El-Lati S, Okayama Y (1991): Biological properties of human skin mast cells. Clin Exp Allergy 21 (Suppl 3): 1--9.
  128. Clark P, Jardine R, Jones P, Martin NG, Walsh RJ (1981): Directional dominance for low IgM and IgA levels. Am J Hum Genet 33: 709--721.
  129. Clarke CW, Aldons PM (1979): The nature of asthma in Brisbane. Clin Allergy 9: 147--152.
  130. Claus EB, Risch NJ, Thompson WD (1990): Using age of onset to distinguish between subforms of breast cancer. Ann Hum Genet 54: 169--177.
  131. Clayton DG (1978): A model for assocation in bivariate life-tables and its application in epidemiological studies of familial tendency in chronic disease incidence. Biometrika 65: 141--151.
  132. Clayton DG, Cuzick J (1985): Multivariate generalizations of the proportional hazards model. J R Statist Soc A 148: 82--117.
  133. Clifford RD, Pugsley A, Radford M, Holgate ST (1987): Symptoms, atopy, and bronchial response to methacholine in parents with asthma and their children. Arch Dis Child 62: 66--73.
  134. Clifford RD, Radford M, Howell JB, Holgate ST (1989): Prevalence of respiratory symptoms among 7 and 11 year old schoolchildren and association with asthma. Arch Dis Child 64: 1118--1125.
  135. Cline MG, Burrows B (1989): Distribution of allergy in a population sample residing in Tucson, Arizona. Thorax 44: 425--431.
  136. Cloninger CR, Rice J, Reich T (1979): Multifactorial inheritance with cultural transmission and assortative mating. Am J Hum Genet 31: 176--198.
  137. Coca A, Cooke R (1923): On the classification of the phenomena of hypersensitiveness. J Immunol 8: 163--180.
  138. Cockcroft DW, Berscheid BA (1983): Slope of the dose-response curve: usefulness in assessing bronchial response to inhaled histamine. Thorax 38: 55--61.
  139. Cockcroft DW, Killian DN, Mellon JJA, Hargreave FE (1977): Bronchial reactivity to inhaled histamine: a method and clinical survey. Clin Allergy 7: 235--243.
  140. Cockcroft DW, Murdock KY, Berscheid BA, Gore BP (1984): Relationship between atopy and bronchial responsiveness to histamine in a random population. Ann Allergy 53: 26--29.
  141. Cockcroft DW, Murdock KY, Berscheid BA, Gore BP (1992): Sensitivity and specificity of histamine PC20 determination in a random selection of young college students. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 23--30.
  142. Cockcroft DW, Ruffin RE, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE (1977): Allergen-induced increase in non-allergic bronchial reactivity. Clin Allergy 7: 503--513.
  143. Cockerham CC (1954): An extension of the concept of partitioning hereditary variance for analysis of covariances among relatives when epistasis is present. Genetics 39: 859--882.
  144. Coleman R, Tremblath RC, Harper JI (1992): Chromsome 11q13 and atopy underlying atopic eczema. Lancet 341: 1121--1122.
  145. Collee JM, ten Kate LP, de Vries HG, Kliphuis JW, Bouman K, Scheffer H et al (1993): Allele sharing on chromosome 11q13 in sibs with asthma and atopy. Lancet 342: 936.
  146. Colley DG (1973): Eosinophils and immune mechanisms. I. Eosinophil stimulation promoter: a lymphokine induced by specific antigen or phytohemagglutinin. J Immunol 110: 1419--1423.
  147. Colp C, Talavera W, Goldman D, Green J, Multz A, Lieberman J (1990): Profile of bronchospastic disease in Puerto Rican patieints in New York City. Ann Intern Med 150: 2349--2354.
  148. Comstock GW, Tockman MS, Helsing KJ, Hennesy KM (1979): Standardised respiratory questionnaires: comparison of the old with the new. Am Rev Respir Dis 119: 45--53.
  149. Connolly MJ, Crowley JJ, Nielson CP, Charan NB, Vestal RE (1992): Relationship between nonspecific bronchial responsiveness to methacholine and peripheral mononuclear leukocyte beta-adrenergic receptor function in young drug-naive subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 146: 592--597.
  150. Cooke RA, Vander Veer A (1916): Human sensitization. J Immunol 1: 201--305.
  151. Cookson WO (1998): Genetic aspects of atopic allergy.. Allergy 53: 9--14.
  152. Cookson WOCM, De Klerk NH, Ryan GR, James AL, Musk AW (1991): Relative risks of bronchial hyper-responsiveness associated with skin-prick test responses to common antigens in young adults. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 473--479.
  153. Cookson WOCM, Faux JA, Sharp PA, Hopkin JM (1989): Linkage between Immunoglobulin E responses underlying asthma and rhinitis and Chromosome 11q. Lancet i: 1292--1294.
  154. Cookson WOCM, Sharp PA, Faux JA, Hopkin JM (1989): A gene for atopy (allergic asthma and rhinitis) located on 11q12-13 [abstract]. Cell Genet Cytogenet 51: 979.
  155. Cookson WOCM, Young RP, Sandford AJ, Moffatt, Shirakawa T, Sharp PA et al (1992): Maternal inheritance of atopic IgE responsiveness on chromosome 11q. Lancet 340: 381--384.
  156. Corbo GM, Forastiere F, Dell'Orco V, Pistelli R, Agabiti N, De Stefanis et al (1993): Effects of environment on atopic status and respiratory disorders in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92: 616--623.
  157. Corey LA, Nance WE, Kang KW, Christian JC (1979): Effects of type of placentation on birthweight and its variability in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 28: 41--50.
  158. Corrigan CJ, Haczku A, Gemou-Engesaeth V, Doi S, Kikuchi Y, Takatsu S et al (1993): CD4 T-lymphocyte activation in asthma is accompanied by increased serum concentrations of Interleukin-5: effect of glucocorticoid therapy. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 540--547.
  159. Cotch MF, Beaty TH, Cohen BH (1990): Path analysis of familial resemblances of pulmonary function and cigarette smoking. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1337--1343.
  160. Cox DR (1972): Regression models and life-tables (with Discussion). J R Statist Soc B 34: 187--220.
  161. Cox HE, Moffatt MF, Faux JA, Walley AJ, Coleman R, Trembath RC, Cookson WO, Harper JI (1998): Association of atopic dermatitis to the beta subunit of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor.. Br J Dermatol 138: 182--187.
  162. Crameri R, Hemmann S, Ismail C, Menz G, Blaser K (1998): Disease-specific recombinant allergens for the diagnosis of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.. Int Immunol 10: 1211--1216.
  163. Crockett AJ, Schembri DA, Ruffin RE, Alpers JH (1986): The prevalence rate of respiratory symptoms in schoolchildren from two Suuth Australian rural communities. Aust NZ J Med 16: 653--657.
  164. Cullen KJ, Stenhouse NS, McCall MG, Welborn TA, Curnow DH (1968): Chronic respiratory disease in a rural community. Lancet ii: 657--660.
  165. Cupples LA, Risch NJ, Farrer LA, Myers RH (1991): Estimation of morbid risk and age at onset with missing information. Am J Hum Genet 49: 76--87.
  166. Curnow RN, Smith C (1975): Multifactorial models for familial diseases in Man. J R Statis Soc A 138: 131--169.
  167. D'amato M, Vitiani LR, Petrelli G, Ferrigno L, di Pietro A, Trezza R, Matricardi PM (1998): Association of persistent bronchial hyperresponsiveness with beta2- adrenoceptor (ADRB2) haplotypes. A population study.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 1968--1973.
  168. Daniels SE, Bhattacharrya S, James A, Leaves NI, Young A, Hill MR, Faux JA, Ryan GF, le Souef PN, Lathrop GM, Musk AW, Cookson WOCM (1996): A genome-wide search for quantitative trait loci underlying asthma. Nature 383: 247--250.
  169. Danon YL, Laor A, Shlezinger M, et al (1990): Decreased incidence of asthma in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Isr J Med Sci 26: 459--460.
  170. Dave NK, Hopp RJ, Biven RE, Degan J, Bewtra AK, Townley RG (1990): Persistence of increased nonspecific bronchial reactivity in allrergic children and adolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 86: 147--153.
  171. Davey MP, Meyer MM, Bakke AC (1994): T cell receptor V-beta gene expression in monozygotic twins. Discordance in CD8 subset and in disease states. J Immunol 152: 315--321.
  172. Davie AM (1979): The 'singles' method for segregation analysis under incomplete ascertainment. Ann Hum Genet 42: 507--512.
  173. Davies DE, Djukanovic R, Holgate ST (1999): Application of functional genomics to study of inflammatory airways disease.. Thorax 54: 79--81.
  174. De Sanctis G, Merchant M, Beier DR, Dredge RD, Grobholz JK, Martin TR, Lander ES, Drazen JR (1995): Quantitative locus analysis of airway hyperresponsiveness in A/J and C57BL/6J mice. Nature Genet 11: 150--154.
  175. De Sanctis GT, MacLean JA, Hamada K, Mehta S, Scott JA, Jiao A, Yandava CN, Kobzik L, Wolyniec WW, Fabian AJ, Venugopal CS, Grasemann H, Huang PL, Drazen JM (1999): Contribution of nitric oxide synthases 1, 2, and 3 to airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a murine model of asthma.. J Exp Med 189: 1621--1630.
  176. DeFries JC, Fulker DW (1985): Multiple regression analysis of twin data. Behav Genet 15: 467--473.
  177. DeMonchy JGR, Kauffman HF, Venge F, Ko ter GH, Jansen HM, Sluiter HJ, De Vries K (1985): Bronchoalveolar eosinophilia during allergen-induced late asthmatic reactions. Rev Respir Dis 131: 373--376.
  178. Deichmann KA, Schmidt A, Heinzmann A, Kruse S, Forster J, Kuehr J (1999): Association studies on beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms and enhanced IgE responsiveness in an atopic population.. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 794--799.
  179. Deichmann KA, Starke B, Schlenther S, Heinzmann A, Sparholt SH, Forster J, Kuehr J (1999): Linkage and association studies of atopy and the chromosome 11q13 region.. J Med Genet 36: 379--382.
  180. Dekker JW, Nizankowska E, Schmitz-Schumann M, Pile K, Bochenek G, Dyczek A et al (1997): Aspirin-induced asthma and HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DPB1 genotypes. Clin Exp Allerg 27: 574--577.
  181. Demoly P, Bousquet J, Manderscheid J-C, Dreborg S, Dhivert H, Michel F-B (1991): Precision of skin prick and puncture tests with nine methods. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88: 758--62.
  182. Derrick EH (1972): Asthma and the Brisbane climate. Aus NZ J Med 3: 235--246.
  183. Dewar JC, Wheatley AP, Venn A, Morrison JF, Britton J, Hall IP (1998): Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms are in linkage disequilibrium, but are not associated with asthma in an adult population.. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 442--448.
  184. Dewar JC, Wilkinson J, Wheatley A, Thomas NS, Doull I, Morton N, et al (1997): The glutamine 27 beta-2-adrenoceptor polymorphism is associated with elevated IgE levels in asthmatic families. J Allergy Clin Immunol 100: 261--265.
  185. Dickson PW, Wong ZY, Harrap SB, Abramson MJ, Walters EH (1999): Mutational analysis of the high affinity immunoglobulin E receptor beta subunit gene in asthma.. Thorax 54: 409--412.
  186. Diepgen TL, Fartasch M, Hornstein OP (1989): Evaluation and relevance of atopic basic and minor features in patients with atopic dermatitis and in the general population. Acta Derm Venereol 144(Supp): 50--54.
  187. Dinh Xuan AT (1990): Bronchial blood flow and microvascular permeability in the pathophysiology of asthma. Med Hypotheses 32: 207--209.
  188. Dizier MH, Hill M, James A, Faux J, Ryan G, le Souef P, Lathrop M, Musk AW, Demenais F, Cookson WOCM (1995): Detection of a recessive major gene for high IgE levels acting independently of specific response to allergens. Genet Epidemiol 12: 93--105.
  189. Djukanovic R, Wilson JW, Britten KM, Wilson SJ, Walls AF, Roche WR et al (1990): Quantitation of mast cells and eosinophils in the bronchial mucosa of symptomatic atopic asthmatics and healthy control subjects using immunohistochemistry. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 863--871.
  190. Doherty JDH, Lancaster PAL (1986): The secular trend of twinning in Australia, 1853-1982. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 35: 61--76.
  191. Dolamore BA, Brown J, Darlow BA, George PM, Sluis KB, Winterbourn CC et al (1992): Selenium status of Christchurch infants and the effect of diet. NZ J Med 105: 139--142.
  192. Dold S, Wjst M, von Mutius E, Reitmeir P, Stiepel E (1992): Genetic risk for asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. Arch Dis Child 67: 1018--1022.
  193. Domrow R (1970): Seasonal variation in numbers of the house-dust mite in Brisbane. Med J Aust 2: 1248--1250.
  194. Doull IJM, Lawrence S, Watson M et al (1996): Allelic association of gene markers on chromosome 5q and 11q with atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153: 1280--1284.
  195. Drazen JM, Yandava CN, Dube L, Szczerback N, Hippensteel R, Pillari A, Israel E, Schork N, Silverman ES, Katz DA, Drajesk J (1999): Pharmacogenetic association between ALOX5 promoter genotype and the response to anti-asthma treatment.. Nat Genet 22: 168--170.
  196. Drillien CM (1958): A longitudinal study of the growth and development of prematurely and maturely born children. IV. Morbidity. Arch Dis Child 34: 210--217.
  197. Duffy DL (1992): A population-based study of bronchial asthma in adult twin pairs [letter]. Chest 102: 654--655.
  198. Duffy DL (1992): The standard error of Cohen's Kappa [letter]. Statist Med 10: 1530.
  199. Duffy DL (1993): Twin studies in medical research [letter]. Lancet 341: 1418--9.
  200. Duffy DL, Battistutta D, Martin NG, Hopper JL, Mathews JD (1990): Genetics of asthma and hayfever in Australian twins. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1351--1358.
  201. Duffy DL, Eaves LJ (1991): Informativeness of twin-nuclear family and nuclear family designs for segregation analysis. Genetic Epidemiology 8: 231--235.
  202. Duffy DL, Macdonald AM, Easton DF, Ponder BAJ, Martin NG (1992): Is the genetics of moliness simply the genetics of sun exposure? A path analysis of nevus counts in British twins, Genetic Analysis Workshop 7: Issues in gene mapping and the detection of major genes. Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics 59: 194--196.
  203. Duffy DL, Martin NG (1994): Inferring the direction of causation in cross-sectional twin data: theoretical and empirical considerations. Genet Epidemiol 11: 483--502.
  204. Duffy DL, Martin NG, Mathews JD (1990): Appendectomy in Australian twins [Letter]. American Journal of Human Genetics 47(3): 590--592.
  205. Duffy DL, Mitchell CA (1991): Respiratory symptoms in Queensland schoolchildren. An association between month of birth and respiratory illness. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 231--233.
  206. Duffy DL, Mitchell CM (1993): Respiratory symptoms in Queensland schoolchildren: risk factors for respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. Thorax 48: 1021--1024.
  207. Duffy DL, O'Connell DL, Heller RF, Martin NG (1993): Risk factors for atherosclerosis in twins. Genet Epidemiol 10: 557--562.
  208. Duffy DL, Spelman LS, Martin NG (1993): Psoriasis in Australian twins. J Am Acad Dermatol 29: 428--434.
  209. Eaves LJ, Kendler KS, Schulz SC (1986): The familial sporadic classification: its power for the resolution of genetic and environmental etiologic factors. J Psychiat Res 20: 115--130.
  210. Edfors-Lub M-L (1971): Allergy in 7000 twin pairs. Acta Allergologica 26: 249--285.
  211. Edfors-Lub M-L (1972): Empiric risks for genetic counseling in families with allergy. J Pediatr 80: 26--31.
  212. Efron B, Tibshirani R (1986): Bootstrap methods for standard errors, confidence intervals and other measures of statistical accuracy. Statist Sci 1: 54--77.
  213. Eiberg H, Lind P, Mohr J, Nielsen LS (1985): Linkage relationship between human immunoglobulin-E polymorphism and marker systems. Cytogenet Cell Genet 14: 622.
  214. Eliasziw M, Donner A (1991): A generalized non-iterative approach to the analysis of family data. Ann Hum Genet 55: 77--90.
  215. Elston RC (1977): Response to query: estimating "heritability" of a dichotomous trait. Biometrics 33: 232--233.
  216. Elston RC, Campbell MA (1970): Schizophrenia: evidence for the major gene hypothesis. Behav Genet 1: 3--1001.
  217. Elston RC, Stewart J (1971): A general model for the analysis of human pedigree data. Human Hered 21: 523--542.
  218. Emanuel MB (1988): Hay fever, a post industrial revolution epidemic: a history of its growth during the 19th century. Clin Allergy 18: 295--304.
  219. Emmerson BT, Nagel SL, Duffy DL, Martin NG (1992): Genetic control of the renal clearance of urate - A study of twins. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases 51: 375--377.
  220. Enarson DA, Vedal S, Schulzer M, Dybuncio A, Chan-Yeung M (1987): Asthma, asthmalike symptoms, chronic bronchitis, and the degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in epidemiologic surveys. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 613--617.
  221. Erdmann J, Nthen MM, Stratmann M, Fimmers R, Franzek E, Propping P (1993): The use of microsatellites in zygosity diagnosis of twins. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 42: 45--51.
  222. Ericsson CH, Svartengren M, Mossberg B, Pedersen N, Camner P (1991): Bronchial reactivity and allergy-promoting factors in monozygotic twins discordant for allergic rhinitis. Ann Allergy 67: 53--59.
  223. Eriksson S (1964): Pulmonary emphysema and alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. Acta Med Scand 175: 197--205.
  224. Eriksson S, Lindmark B, Lilja H (1986): Familial alpha-1-antichymotrypsin deficiency. Acta Med Scand 22: 447--453.
  225. Esch RE, Klapper DG (1989): Isolation and characterization of a major cross-reactive grass group I allergenic determinant. Mol Immunol 26: 557--561.
  226. Espeland MA, Hui SL (1987): A general approach to analysing epidemiologic data that contains misclassification errors. Biometrics 43: 1001--1012.
  227. Espeland MA, Odoroff CL (1985): Log-linear models for doubly sampled categorical data fitted by the EM algorithm. J Am Statist Ass 80: 663--670.
  228. Eura M, Friedhoff L, Kautzky E (1992): HLA-DPB and IgE specific response to allergens [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 218.
  229. Ewart SL, Mitzner W, DiSilvestre DA, et al (1996): Airway hyperresponsiveness to acetylcholine: segregation analysis and evidence for linkage to murine chromosome 6. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 14: 487--495.
  230. Fagerhol MK, Hauge HE (1969): Serum Pi types in patients with pulmonary diseases. Acta Allergol 24: 107--114.
  231. Fain PR, Goldgar DE (1986): A nonparametric test of heterogeneity of family risk. Genet Epidemiol Supp 1: 61--66.
  232. Falconer DS (1965): The inheritance of liability to certain diseases, estimated from the incidence among relatives. Ann Hum Genet 29: 51--76.
  233. Falliers CJ, Cardoso RRdeA, Bane HN, Coffey R, Middleton E (1971): Discordant allergic manifestations in monozygotic twins: genetic identity versus clinical, physiologic, and biochemical differences. J Allergy 47: 207--219.
  234. Farrer LA, Myers RH, Cupples LA, St, George-Hislop PH, Bird TD, Rossor MN et al (1990): Transmission and age-at-onset patterns in familial Alzheimer's disease: evidence for heterogeneity. Neurology 40: 395--403.
  235. Feng Z, Grizzle JE (1992): Correlated binomial variates: properties of estimator of intraclass correlation and its effect on sample size calculation. Statist Med 11: 1607--1614.
  236. Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Shannon FT (1983): Parental asthma, parental eczema and asthma and eczema in early childhood. J Chron Dis 7: 517--524.
  237. Fitch FW, McKisic MD, Lancki DW, Gajewski TF (1993): Differential regulation of murine T lymphocyte subsets. Ann Rev Immunol 11: 29--48.
  238. Flatt A, Pearce N, Thomson CD et al (1990): Reduced selenium in asthmatic subjects in New Zealand. Thorax 45: 95--99.
  239. Flynn MGL (1994): Respiratory symptoms, bronchial responsiveness, and atopy in Fijian and Indian children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 150: 415--20.
  240. Freeman J (1930): "Rush" inoculation, with special reference to hay-fever treatment. Lancet i: 744--747.
  241. Freidhoff LR, Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Hussain R (1983): The structuring of an allergy index based on IgE-mediated skin sensitivity to common environmental allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol 72: 274--287.
  242. Frew AJ, Kay AB (1990): Eosinophils and T-lymphocytes in late-phase allergic reactions. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85: 533--539.
  243. Frohlander N, Stjernberg N (1989): Association between haptoglobin groups and hereditary predisposition for bronchial asthma. Human Heredity 39: 7--11.
  244. Fujii H, Kondo H, Agata O, et al (1995): Genetic analysis of IgE and the IGHE, IGHEP1 and IGHEP2 genes in atopic families. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 106: 62--8.
  245. Fujii Y (1990): Models for association in bivariate survival data. Environ Health Perspect 87: 131--134.
  246. Gaillard MC, Kilroe-Smith TA, Nogueira C, Dunn D, Jenkins T, Fine B, Kallenbach J (1992): Alpha-1-protease inhibitor in bronchial asthma: phenotypes and biochemical characteristics. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 1311--1315.
  247. Galli SJ (1993): New concepts about the mast cell. New Engl J Med 328: 257--265.
  248. Gao PS, Mao XQ, Kawai M, Enomoto T, Sasaki S, Shaldon SR, Dake Y, Kitano H, Coull P, Hagihara A, Shirakawa T, Hopkin JM (1998): Lack of association between ACE gene polymorphisms and atopy and asthma in British and Japanese populations [letter]. Clin Genet 54: 245--247.
  249. Gao PS, Mao XQ, Kawai M, Enomoto T, Sasaki S, Tanabe O, Yoshimura K, Shaldon SR, Dake Y, Kitano H, Coull P, Shirakawa T, Hopkin JM (1998): Negative association between asthma and variants of CC16(CC10) on chromosome 11q13 in British and Japanese populations.. Hum Genet 103: 57--59.
  250. Gauchat J-F, Gascan H, Roncarolo M-G, Rousset F, P (1991): Regulation of human IgE synthesis: the role of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and the inhibitory effects of interferon-`. Eur Resp J 13(Supp): 31s--38s.
  251. Gawronska-Szklarz B, Luszawska-Kutrzeba T, Czaja-Bulsa G, Kurzawski G (1999): Relationship between acetylation polymorphism and risk of atopic diseases.. Clin Pharmacol Ther 65: 562--569.
  252. Gelber LE, Seltzer LH, Bouzoukis JK, Pollart SM, Chapman MD, Platt-Mills TAE (1993): Sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens as risk factors for asthma among patients presenting to hospital. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 573--578.
  253. Gergen PJ, Turkeltaub PC (1992): The association of individual allergen reactivity with respiratory disease in a national sample: data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1976-80 (NHANES II). J Allergy Clin Immunol 90: 579--88.
  254. Gerrard JW, Geddes CA, Reggin PL, Gerrard CD, Horne S (1976): Serum IgE levels in white and Metis communities in Saskatchewan. Ann Allergy 37: 91--100.
  255. Gerrard JW, Rao DC, Morton NE (1978): A genetic study of Immunoglobulin E. Am J Hum Genet 30: 46--58.
  256. Gerrard JW, Vickers P, Gerrard CD (1976): The familial incidence of allergic disease. Ann Allergy 36: 10--15.
  257. Gerritsen J, Koeter GH, de Monchy JGR, Campagne JGvL, Knol K (1990): Changes in airway responsiveness to inhaled house dust from childhood to adulthood. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85: 1083--1089.
  258. Gerritsen J, Koeter GH, de Monchy JGR, Knol K (1990): Allergy in subjects with asthma from childhood to adulthood. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85: 116--125.
  259. Geschwind N, Behan P (1982): Left-handedness: association with immune diseases, migraine, and developmental learning disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 5097--5100.
  260. Gibson HB, Silverstone H, Gandevia B (1969): Respiratory disorders in seven-year-old children in Tasmania. Aims, methods and administration of the survey. Med J Aust 2: 201--205.
  261. Gibson JB, Martin NG, Oakeshott JG, Rowell DM (1983): Lung function in an Australian population: contribution of polygenic factors ands the Pi locus to individual differences in lung function in a sample of twins. Ann Hum Biol 10: 547--556.
  262. Gilbert R, Auchincloss JH (1990): Post-test probability of asthma following methacholine challenge. Chest 97: 562--565.
  263. Gleich GJ (1990): The eosinophil and bronchial asthma: current understanding. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85: 422--436.
  264. Gleich GJ, Averbeck AK, Swedlund HA (1971): Measurement of IgE in normal and allergic serum by radioimmunoassay. J Lab Clin Med 77: 690--697.
  265. Godfrey RC (1975): Asthma and IgE levels in rural and urban communities of The Gambia. Clin Allergy 5: 201--207.
  266. Gold DR, Rotnitzky A, Damokosh AI, Ware JH, Speizer FE, Ferris BG et al (1993): Race and gender differences in respiratory illness prevalence and their relationship to environmental exposures in children 7 to 14 years of age. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 10--18.
  267. Gold DR, Tager IB, Weiss ST, Tosteton TD, Speizer FE (1989): Acute lower respiratory illness in childhood as a predictor of lung function and chronic respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 877--884.
  268. Gorham JD, Guler ML, Steen RG, Mackey AJ, Daly MJ, Frederick K et al (1996): Genetic mapping of a murine locus controlling development of T helper 1/T helper 2 type responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 12467--12472.
  269. Gourgoulianis KI, Papagianni M, Molyvdas PA (1998): Maternal atopy and childhood bronchial asthma [letter; comment]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 101: 432--430.
  270. Green S, Turki J, Innis M, Liggett SB (1994): Amino terminal polymorphisms of the human beta-2-adrenergic receptor impart distinct agonist promoted regulatory properties. Biochemistry 33: 9414--9419.
  271. Green SL, Gaillard MC, Song E, Dewar JB, Halkas A (1998): Polymorphisms of the beta chain of the high-affinity immunoglobulin E receptor (Fcepsilon RI-beta) in South African black and white asthmatic and nonasthmatic individuals.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 1487--1492.
  272. Green WF, Woolcock AJ, Stuckey M, Sedgwick C, Leeder SR (1986): House dust mites and skin tests in different Australian localities. Aus NZ J Med 16: 639--643.
  273. Gregg I (1986): Epidemiological research in asthma: the need for a broad perspective. Clin Allergy 16: 17--23.
  274. Griesenbach U, Geddes DM, Alton EW (1999): The pathogenic consequences of a single mutated CFTR gene.. Thorax 54 Suppl 2: 0--23.
  275. Griffin E, Hkansson L, Formgren H, Jrgensen LT, Peterson C, Venge P (1991): Blood eosinophil number and activity in relation to lung function in patients with asthma and with eosiophilia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 87: 548--57.
  276. Grove DI, Forbes IJ (1975): Increased resistance to helminth infestation in an atopic population. Med J Aus i: 336--338.
  277. Haahtela T, Lindholm H, Bjrksten F, Koskenvuo K, Laitinen LA (1990): Prevalence of asthma in Finnish young men. Br Med J 301: 266--268.
  278. Hahn DL, Dodge RW, Golubjatnikov R (1991): Association of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) infection with wheezing, asthmatic bronchitis and adult-onset asthma. J Am Med Assoc 266: 225--230.
  279. Haider MZ, Hijazi Z (1998): Prevalence of high affinity IgE receptor [Fc epsilon RI beta] gene polymorphisms in Kuwaiti Arabs with asthma [letter]. Clin Genet 54: 166--167.
  280. Hall IP (1998): Genetic factors in asthma severity.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 5: 16--20.
  281. Hall IP (1998): The genetics of asthma. Candidate gene approaches: gene-environmental interactions.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 74--76.
  282. Hall IP, Wheatley A, Dewar J (1996): FcnRI-beta polymorphisms unlikely to contribute substantially to genetic risk of allergic disease. Brit Med J 312: 311.
  283. Hall IP, Wheatley A, Wilding P, Liggett SB (1995): Association of Glu 27 beta-2-adrenoceptor polymorphism with lower airway reactivity in asthmatic subjects. Lancet 345: 1213--1214.
  284. Hall JG (1990): Genomic imprinting: review and relevance to human diseases. Am J Hum Genet 46: 857--873.
  285. Halonen M, Stern D, Lyle S, Wright A, Taussig L, Martinez FD (1991): Relationship of total serum IgE levels in cord and 9-month sera of infants. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 235--241.
  286. Hanifin JM, Rajka G (1980): Diagnostic features of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 92(Suppl): 44--47.
  287. Hannah MC, Hopper JL, Mathews JD (1983): Twin concordance for a binary trait. 1. Statistical models illustrated with data on drinking status. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 32: 127--137.
  288. Hannah MC, Hopper JL, Mathews JD (1985): Twin concordance for a binary trait, II: nested analysis of ever-smoking and ex-smoking traits and unnested analysis of a "committed smoking" trait. Am J Hum Genet 37: 153--165.
  289. Hanson B, McGue M, Roitman-Johnson B, Segal NL, Bouchard TJ, Blumenthal MN (1991): Atopic disease and Immunoglobulin E in twins reared apart and together. Am J Hum Genet 48: 873--879.
  290. Harris JR, Nystad W, Magnus P (1998): Using genes and environments to define asthma and related phenotypes: applications to multivariate data.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 43--45.
  291. Hart LA, Krishnan VL, Adcock IM, Barnes PJ, Chung KF (1998): Activation and localization of transcription factor, nuclear factor- kappaB, in asthma.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 1585--1592.
  292. Harving H, Korsgaard J, Dahl R, Beck H-I, Bjerring P (1990): House dust mites and atopic dermatitis. A case-control study on the significance of house dust mites as etiologic allergens in atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy 65: 25--31.
  293. Haseman JK, Elston RC (1970): The estimation of genetic variance from twin data. Behav Genet 1: 11--19.
  294. Haseman JK, Elston RC (1972): The investigation of linkage between a quantitative trait and a marker locus. Behav Genet 2: 3--19.
  295. Hasselmark L, Malmgren R, Unge G, Zetterstrm O (1990): Lowered platelet glutathione peroxidae activity in patients with intrinsic asthma. Allergy 45: 523--727.
  296. Hasselmark L, Malmgren R, Zetterstrm O, Unge G (1993): Selenium supplementation in intrinsic asthma. Allergy 48: 30--36.
  297. Hasstedt SJ (1982): A mixed-model likelihood approximation on large pedigrees. Computer Biomed Res 15: 295--307.
  298. Hasstedt SJ (1991): A variance components/major locus likelihood approximation on quantitative data. Genet Epidemiol 8: 113--125.
  299. Hasstedt SJ (1993): Variance components/major locus likelihood approximation for quantitative, polychotomous and multivariate data. Genet Epidemiol 10: 145--158.
  300. Hasstedt SJ, Meyers DA, Marsh DG (1983): Inheritance of Immunoglobulin E: Genetic model fitting. Am J Med Genet 14: 61--66.
  301. Hastrup JL, Hotchkiss AP, Johnson CA (1985): Accuracy of knowledge of family history of cardiovascular disorders. Health Psychol 4: 291--306.
  302. Hawes GE, Struyk L, van den Elsen PJ (1993): Differential usage of T cell recepttor V gene segments in CD4+ and CD8+ subsets of T lymphocytes in monozygotic twins. J Immunol 150: 2033--2045.
  303. Heath AC, Martin NG (1991): Intoxication after an acute dose of alcohol: an assessment of its association with alcohol consumption patterns by using twin data. Alcoholism: Clin Exp Res 15: 122--128.
  304. Heath AC, Neale MC, Hewitt JK, Eaves LJ, Fulker DW (1989): Testing structural equation models for twin data using LISREL. Behav Genet 15: 9--35.
  305. Helander E (1958): Asthma and diabetes. Acta Med Scand CLXII: 165--174.
  306. Heller RF, O'Connell DL, Roberts DCK, Allen JR, Knapp JC, Steele PL, Silove D (1988): Lifestyle factors in monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Genet Epidemiol 5: 311--322.
  307. Helsing KJ, Comstock GW, Speizer FE, Ferris BG, Lebowitz MD, Tockman MS et al (1979): Comparison of three standardised questionnaires on respiratory symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 120: 1221--1231.
  308. Hemmerich S, Pecht I (1988): Isolation and purification of an Fcn receptor activated ion channel from the rat mast cell line RBL-2H3. Biochemistry 27: 7488--7498.
  309. Herman FF, Goldberg BJ, Lad PM, Neidzin H, Kaplan M, Easton JG (1990): Effects of histamine on alpha adrenergic receptor expression on the lymphocytes of normal and asthmatic subjects. Ann All 65: 32--36.
  310. Hersperger R, Schuler W, Zenke G (1999): Preparation and immunosuppressive activity of 32-(O)-acylated and 32- (O)-thioacylated analogues of ascomycin.. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 9: 227--232.
  311. Higgenbottam T, Varma N (1989): Asthma: an inherited dysfunction of bone marrow cells. Europ Resp J 2: 921--922.
  312. Higgins BG, Britton JR, Chinn S, Jones TD, Jenkinson D, Burney PGJ et al (1989): The distribution of peak expiratory flow variability in a population sample. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 1368--1372.
  313. Higgins M, Keller J (1975): Familial occurrence of chronic respiratory disease and familial resemblance in ventilatory capacity. J Chron Dis 28: 239--251.
  314. Hill DJ, Smart IJ, Knox RB (1979): Childhood asthma and grass pollen aerobiology in Melbourne. Med J Aust i: 426--429.
  315. Hill MR, Cookson WOCM (1996): A new variant of the beta subunit of the high-affinity receptor for Immunoglobulin E: associations with measures of atopy and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Human Mol Genet 5: 959--962.
  316. Hill MR, Daniels SE, James AL, Faux JA, Ryan G, Le Souef P, Musk AW, Cookson WOCM (1994): A coding polymorphism for FcnRI-beta Leu181 in a random population sample: associations with atopy [abstract]. Genet Epidemiol 11: 297.
  317. Hill MR, James AL, Faux JA, Ryan G, Hopkin JM, Le Souef P, Musk AW, Cookson WOCM (1995): FcnRI-beta and risk of atopy in a general population sample. Brit Med J 311: 776--779.
  318. Hizawa N, Collins G, Rafnar T, Huang SK, Duffy DL, Weber JL, Freidhoff LR, Ehrlich E, Marsh DG, Beaty TH, Barnes KC (1998): Linkage analysis of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus-specific IgE responsiveness with polymorphic markers on chromosome 6p21 (HLA-D region) in Caucasian families by the transmission/disequilibrium test. Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA).. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 443--448.
  319. Hizawa N, Freidhoff LR, Ehrlich E, Chiu YF, Duffy DL, Schou C, Dunston GM, Beaty TH, Marsh DG, Barnes KC, Huang SK (1998): Genetic influences of chromosomes 5q31-q33 and 11q13 on specific IgE responsiveness to common inhaled allergens among African American families. Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA).. J Allergy Clin Immunol 102: 449--453.
  320. Hizawa N, Yamaguchi E, Ohe M, Itoh A, Furuya K, Ohnuma N, Kawakami Y (1992): Lack of linkage between atopy and locus 11q13. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1065--1069.
  321. Ho I-C, Hodge MR, Rooney JW, Glimcher LH (1996): The proto-oncogene c-maf is responsible for tissue-specific expression of interleukin-4. Cell 85: 973--983.
  322. Hobbs K, Negri J, Klinnert M, Rosenwasser LJ, Borish L (1998): Interleukin-10 and transforming growth factor-beta promoter polymorphisms in allergies and asthma.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 1958--1962.
  323. Hochberg Y (1977): On the use of double sampling schemes in analysing categorical data with misclassification errors. J Am Statist Ass 72: 914--921.
  324. Hodge S (1993): Linkage analysis versus association analysis: distinguishing between two models that explain disease-marker associations. Am J Hum Genet 53: 367--384.
  325. Hodges E, Dasmahapatra J, Smith JL, Quin CT, Lanham S, Krishna MT, Holgate ST, Frew AJ (1998): T cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta gene usage in bronchoalveolar lavage and peripheral blood T cells from asthmatic and normal subjects.. Clin Exp Immunol 112: 363--374.
  326. Hoffman JJML, Kramps JA, Dijkman JH (1981): Intermediate alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in atopic allergy. Clin Allergy 11: 555--560.
  327. Hogg JC (1992): Persistent and latent viral infections in the pathology of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: S6--S9.
  328. Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Martinez FD (1998): Differences in familial segregation of FEV1 between asthmatic and nonasthmatic families. Role of a maternal component.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 162--169.
  329. Holberg CJ, Elston RC, Halonen M et al (1996): Segregation analysis of physician-diagnosed asthma in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families. A recessive component. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 154: 144--50.
  330. Holgate ST (1991): The mast cell and its function in allergic disease. Clin Exp Allergy 21(Supp 3): 11--16.
  331. Holla L, Vasku A, Znojil V, Siskova L, Vacha J (1999): Association of 3 gene polymorphisms with atopic diseases.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103: 702--708.
  332. Holloway JW, Doull I, Begishvili B, Beasley R, Holgate ST, Howell WM (1996): Lack of evidence of a significant association between HLA-DR, DQ and DP genotypes and atopy in families with HDM allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 26: 1142--1149.
  333. Holroyd KJ, Martinati LC, Trabetti E, Scherpbier T, Eleff SM, Boner AL, Pignatti PF, Kiser MB, Dragwa CR, Hubbard F, Sullivan CD, Grasso L, Messler CJ, Huang M, Hu Y, Nicolaides NC, Buetow KH, Levitt RC (1998): Asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness linked to the XY long arm pseudoautosomal region.. Genomics 52: 233--235.
  334. Holt JD, Prentice RL (1974): Survival analysis in twin studies and matched pairs experiments. Biometrika 61: 17--30.
  335. Holt PG (1993): Regulation of antigen-presenting cell function(s) in lung and airway tissues. Eur Resp J 6: 120--129.
  336. Holtzman MJ (1991): Arachidonic acid metabolism: implications of biological chemistry for lung function and disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 188--203.
  337. Hopkin JM (1990): A genetic approach to atopy. Eur Resp J 3: 851--852.
  338. Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Biven R, Nair NM and Townley RG (1988): Bronchial reactivity pattern in nonasthmatic parents of asthmatics. Ann Allergy 61: 184--186.
  339. Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Watt GD, Nair NM, Townley RG (1984): Genetic analysis of allergic disease in twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 73: 265--270.
  340. Hopp RJ, Townley RG, Biven RE, Bewtra AK, Nair NM (1990): The presence of airway reactivity before the development of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 2--8.
  341. Hopper JL, Hannah MC, Macaskill GT, Mathews JD (1990): Twin concordance for a binary trait: 3. A bivariate analysis of hay fever and asthma. Genet Epidemiol 7: 277--289.
  342. Horn BR, Robin ED, Theodore J, Van Kessel A (1975): Total eosinophil count in the management of bronchial asthma. New Engl J Med 292: 1152--1155.
  343. Hosein HR, Corey P, Robertson, J McD (1989): The effect of domestic factors on respiratory symptoms and FEV1. Int J Epidemiol 18: 390--396.
  344. Hougaard P (1986): Survival models for heterogenous populations derived from stable distributions. Biometrika 73: 387--396.
  345. Hougaard P, Harvald B, Holm NV (1992): Measuring the similarities between the lifetimes of adult Danish twins born between 1881-1930. J Am Statist Assoc 87: 17--24.
  346. Howard TD, Wiesch DG, Koppelman GH, Postma DS, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER (1999): Genetics of allergy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness.. Clin Exp Allergy 29 Suppl 2: 86--89.
  347. Hozouri K, Hanson B, Roitman-Johnson B, Walsh G, Blumenthal MN (1990): Genetics of atopic diseases in twins raised together and apart [abstract]. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 121.
  348. Hsieh C-S, Macatonia SE, Tripp CS, Wolf SF, O'Garra A, Murphy KM (1993): Development of TH1 CD4+ T cells through IL-12 produced by Listeria-induced macrophages. Science 260: 547--549.
  349. Hsieh K-H (1991): Effects of PAF antagonist BN52021 on the PAF-, methacholine-, and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children. Chest 99: 877--882.
  350. Huang S-K, Marsh DG (1993): Genetics of allergy. Ann Allergy 70: 347--358.
  351. Huang S-L, Su C-H, Chang S-C (1997): Tumor necrosis factor-` gene polymorphism in chronic bronchitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156: 1436--1439.
  352. Hui KP, Barnes NC (1991): Lung function improvement in asthma with a cysteinyl-leukotriene receptor antagonist. Lancet 337: 1062--3.
  353. Huovinen E, Kaprio J, Vesterinen E, et al (1997): Mortality of adults with asthma: a prospective cohort study. Thorax 52: 49--54.
  354. Husby H, Holm NV, Gernow A, Thomsen SG, Kock K, Gurtler H (1991): Zygosity, placental membranes and Weinberg's rule in a Danish consecutive twin series. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 40: 147--152.
  355. Hyde JS, Werner P, Kumar CM, Moore BS (1979): Protease inhibitor variants in children and young adults with chronic asthma. Ann Allergy 43: 8--13.
  356. Immervoll T, Wjst M (1999): Current status of the Asthma and Allergy Database.. Nucleic Acids Res 27: 213--214.
  357. Impens N, Reiss TF, Teahan JA, Desmet M, Rossing TH, Shingo S et al (1993): Acute bronchodilation with an intravenously administered leukotriene D4, MK-679. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 1442--1446.
  358. In KH, Silverman ES, Asano K, Beier D, Fischer AR, Keith TP, Serino K, Yandava C, De Sanctis GT, Drazen JM (1999): Mutations in the human 5-lipoxygenase gene.. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol 17: 59--69.
  359. Inacio F, Perichon B, Desvaux F-X, David B, Peltre G, Krishnamoorthy R (1991): Genetic transmission study of grass pollen sensitivity in 17 Portugese families [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1: 204.
  360. Ipsen J (1984): The ubiquitous 2x2 table, its parameters and their confidence limits. Scand J Soc Med 12: 121--127.
  361. Ishizawa M, Shibasaki M, Yokouchi Y, Noguchi E, Arinami T, Yamakawa-Kobayashi K, Matsui A, Hamaguchi H (1999): No association between atopic asthma and a coding variant of Fc epsilon R1 beta in a Japanese population.. J Hum Genet 44: 308--311.
  362. James JW (1971): Frequency in relatives for an all-or-none trait. Ann Hum Genet 35: 47--49.
  363. Jardine R, Martin NG, Henderson AS (1984): Genetic covariation between neuroticism and the symptoms of anxiety and depression. Genet Epidemiol 1: 89--107.
  364. Javaid A, Cushley MJ, Bone MF (1988): Effect of dietary salt on bronchial reactivity to histamine in asthma. Brit Med J 297: 454.
  365. Jenkins MA, Hopper JL, Bowes G, Carlin JB, Flander LB, Giles GG (1994): Factors in childhood as predictors of asthma in adult life. Brit Med J 309: 90--93.
  366. Jinks JA, Fulker DW (1970): Comparison of the biometrical genetical, MAVA, and classical approaches to the analysis of human behaviour. Psychol Bull 73: 311--349.
  367. Johnson SL, Holgate ST (1990): Cellular and chemical mediators - their roles in allergic diseases. Curr Opin Immunol 2: 513--523.
  368. Josephs LK, Gregg I, Holgate ST (1990): Does non-specific bronchial responsiveness indicate the severity of asthma. Eur Resp J 3: 220--227.
  369. Josephs LK, Gregg I, Mullee MA, Holgate ST (1989): Nonspecific bronchial reactivity and its relationship to the clinical expression of asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 350--357.
  370. Kaliner M, Shelhamer JH, Davis PB, Smith LJ, Venter JC (1982): Autonomic nervous system abnormalities and allergy. Am J Med 96: 349--357.
  371. Kalsheker N, Morgan K (1990): The alpha-1 antitrypsin gene and chronic lung disease. Thorax 45: 759--764.
  372. Kang BC, Wu CW, Johnson J (1992): Characteristics and diagnoses of cockroach-sensitive bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 68: 237--244.
  373. Kaplan NL, Martin ER, Weir BS (1997): Power studies for the transmission/disequilibrium tests with multiple alleles. Am J Hum Genet 60: 691--702.
  374. Kapsenberg ML, Wierenga EA, Bos JD, Jansen HM (1991): Aberrant T cell regulation of IgE production in atopy. Eur Resp J 13(Supp): 27s--30s.
  375. Kasriel J, Eaves LJ (1976): The zygosity of twins: further evidence on the agreement between diagnosis by blood group and written questionnaires. J Biosoc Sci 8: 263--266.
  376. Kauffman F, Frette C, Annesi I, Oryszczyn M-P, Dore M-F, Neukirch F (1991): Relationship of haptoglobin level to FEV1, wheezing, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and allergy. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 669--674.
  377. Kauffman F, Frette C, Pham Q-T, Naffisi S, Bertrand J-P, Oriol R (1996): Associations of Blood Group-Related antigens to FEV1, wheezing, and asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153: 76--82.
  378. Kauffman F, Tager IB, Munoz A, Speizer FK (1989): Familial factors related to lung function in children aged 6-10 years. Results from the PAARC epidemiologic study. Am J Epidemiol 129: 1289--1299.
  379. Kauppi P, Laitinen LA, Laitinen H, Kere J, Laitinen T (1998): Phenotyping asthma patients for a gene mapping study in Finland.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 40--42.
  380. Kauppi P, Laitinen LA, Laitinen H, Kere J, Laitinen T (1998): Verification of self-reported asthma and allergy in subjects and their family members volunteering for gene mapping studies.. Respir Med 92: 1281--1288.
  381. Kawashima T, Noguchi E, Arinami T, Kobayashi K, Otsuka F, Hamaguchi H (1998): No evidence for an association between a variant of the mast cell chymase gene and atopic dermatitis based on case-control and haplotype- relative-risk analyses.. Hum Hered 48: 271--274.
  382. Kaye MG, Smith LJ (1990): Effects of inhaled leukotriene D4 and platelet-activating factor on airway reactivity. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 993--997.
  383. Kee F, Collins BJ, Patterson CC (1991): Prognosis in familial non-polyposis colorectal cancer. Gut 32: 513--516.
  384. Kelly WJW, Hudson I, Phelan PD, Pain MCF, Olinsky A (1987): Childhood asthma in adult life: a further study at age of 28 years. Br Med J 294: 1059--1062.
  385. Kelly WJW, Hudson I, Phelan PD, Pain MCF, Olinsky A (1990): Atopy in subjects with asthma followed to the age of 28 years. J Allergy CLin Immunol 85: 548--557.
  386. Kelly WJW, Hudson I, Raven J, Phelan PD, Pain MCF, Olinsky A (1988): Childhood asthma and adult lung function. Am Rev Respir Dis 138: 26--30.
  387. Kemeny DM, Diaz-Sanchez D (1993): The role of CD8+ T cells in the regulation of IgE. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 466--470.
  388. Kempthorne O, Osborne R (1961): The interpretation of twin data. Am J Hum Genet 13: 320--339.
  389. Kendler KS, Eaves LJ (1986): Models for the joint effect of genotype and environment on liability to psychiatric illness. Am J Psychiatry 143: 279--289.
  390. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ (1993): A test of the equal-environment assumption in twin studies of psychiatric illness. Behav Genet 23: 21--27.
  391. Kennedy SM, Burrows B, Vedal S, Enarson DA, Chan-Yeung M (1990): Methacholine responsiveness among working populations. Relationship to smoking and airway calibre. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 1377--1383.
  392. Kimber I (1998): Allergy, asthma and the environment: an introduction.. Toxicol Lett 102-103: 301--306.
  393. King CL, Low CL, Nutman TB (1993): IgE production in human helminth infection: reciprocal interrelationship between IL-4 and IFN-gamma. J Immunol 150: 1873--1880.
  394. Kirk DB (1979): On the numerical approximation of the bivariate normal (tetrachoric) correlation coefficient. Psychometrika 38: 259--268.
  395. Kjellman N-IM, Croner S (1984): Cord blood IgE determination for allergy prediction - a follow-up to seven years of age in 1,651 children. Ann Allergy 53: 167--171.
  396. Klink M, Cline MG, Halonen M, Burrows B (1990): Problems in defining normal limits for serum IgE. J Allergy Clin Immunol 85: 440--444.
  397. Klysner S, Welinder KG, Lowenstein H, Matthiesen F (1992): Group V allergens in grass pollens: IV. Similarities in amino acid compositions and NH2-terminal sequences of the Group V allergens from Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, and Dactylis glomerata. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 491--497.
  398. Kofler H, Aichberger S, Ott G, Casari A, Kofler R (1996): Lack of association between atopy and the Ile181Leu variant of the beta-subunit of the high-affinity Immunoglobulin E receptor. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 111: 44--47.
  399. Koh YY, Chae SA, Min KU (1993): Cough variant asthma is associated with a higher wheezing threshold than classic asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 696--701.
  400. Kondo N, Fukao T, Kaneko H, Teramoto T, Tashita H, Inoue R (1998): DNase I hypersensitive sites in human I epsilon region of immunoglobulin heavy chain genes abnormally induced by interleukin-4 in B-lymphocytes of atopic patients with high levels of serum IgE.. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol 8: 234--238.
  401. Konig P, Godfrey S (1974): Exercise-induced bronchial lability in monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (nonidentical) twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 5: 280--287.
  402. Korsgaard J (1983): Mite asthma and residency: a case-control study on the impact of exposure to house-dust mites in dwellings. Am Rev Respir Dis 128: 231--235.
  403. Kort HSM, Kniest FM (1994): 4-year stability of Der-p-I in house dust under simulated domestic conditions in vitro. Allergy 49: 131--133.
  404. Kraemer HC (1979): Ramifications of a population model for Kappa as a coefficient of reliability. Psychometrika 44: 461--472.
  405. Krauss RM (1991): The tangled web of coronary risk factors. Am J Med 90(suppl 2A): 36S--41S.
  406. Krinzman SJ, De Sanctis GT, Cernadas M, Mark D, Wang Y, Listman J et al (1996): Inhibition of T cell costimulation abrogates airway hyperresponsiveness in a murine model. J Clin Invest 98: 2693--2699.
  407. Kuehr J, Karmaus W, Forster J, Frischer T, Hendel-Kramer A, Moseler M et al (1993): Sensitization to four common inhalant allergens within 302 nuclear families. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 600--605.
  408. LaBuda MC, DeFries JC, Fulker DW (1986): Multiple regression analysis of twin data obtained from selected samples. Genet Epidemiol 3: 425--433.
  409. Laing IA, Goldblatt J, Eber E, Hayden CM, Rye PJ, Gibson NA, Palmer LJ, Burton PR, Le Souef PN (1998): A polymorphism of the CC16 gene is associated with an increased risk of asthma.. J Med Genet 35: 463--467.
  410. Laitinen LA, Laitinen A, Haahtela T (1993): Airway mucosal inflammation even in patients with newly diagnosed asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 697--704.
  411. Laitinen T, Rasanen M, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M, Laitinen LA (1998): Importance of genetic factors in adolescent asthma: a population-based twin-family study.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 157: 1073--1078.
  412. Laitinen T, Kauppi P, Ignatius J, Ruotsalainen T, Daly MJ, Kriinen H et al (1997): Genetic control of serumm IgE levels and asthma: linkage and linkage disequilibrium studies in an isolated population. Hum Molec Genet 6: 2069--2076.
  413. Lange K, Boehnke M (1983): Extensions to pedigree analysis. IV. Covariance components models for multivariate traits. Am J Med Genet 14: 513--524.
  414. Lange K, Boenke M, Weeks D (1988): Programs for Pedigree Analysis: MENDEL, FISHER and dGENE. Genet Epidemiol 5: 471--472.
  415. Lange K, Westlake J, Spence MA (1976): Extensions to pedigree analysis. III. Variance components by the scoring method. Ann Hum Genet 39: 485--491.
  416. Langer RD, Criqui MH, Feigelson HS, McCann TJ, Hamberger RN (1996): IgE predicts future nonfatal myocardial infarction in men. J Clin Epidemiol 49: 203--209.
  417. Lara-Marquez ML, Yunis JJ, Layrisse Z, Ortega F, Carvallo-Gil E, Montagnani S, Makhatadze NJ, Pocino M, Granja C, Yunis E (1999): Immunogenetics of atopic asthma: association of DRB1*1101 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 haplotype with Dermatophagoides spp.-sensitive asthma in a sample of the Venezuelan population.. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 60--71.
  418. Larsen FS (1993): Atopic dermatitis: a genetic-epidemiologic study in a population-based twin sample. J Am Acad Dermatol 28: 719--723.
  419. Larsen FS, Hanifin JM (1992): Secular changes in the occurrence of atopic dermatitis. Acta Derm Venereol 176(Suppl): 7--12.
  420. Larsen FS, Holm NV, Henningsen K (1986): Atopic dermatitis. J Am Acad Dermatol 15: 487--494.
  421. Lawrence S, Beasley R, Doull I, Begishvili B, Lampe F, Holgate ST, Morton NE (1994): Genetic analysis of atopy and asthma as quantitative traits and ordered polychotomies. Ann Hum Genet 58: 359--368.
  422. Le Souef P (1998): Use of cohorts with extensive longitudinal data in investigating the molecular genetics of asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 46--50.
  423. Lebowitz MD (1977): Smoking habits and changes in smoking habits as they relate to chronic conditions and respiratory symptoms. Am J Epidemiol 105: 534--543.
  424. Lebowitz MD, Barbee R, Burrows B (1984): Family concordance of IgE, atopy and disease. J All Clin Immunol 73: 259--264.
  425. Lebowitz MD, Burrows B (1976): Respiratory symptoms related to smoking habits of family adults. Chest 69: 48--50.
  426. Leeder SR, Corkhill R, Irwig LM, Holland WW (1976): Influence of family factors on the incidence of asthma and wheezing during the first five years of life. Brit J Prev Soc Med 30: 213--218.
  427. Leeder SR, Corkhill R, Irwig LM, Holland WW (1976): Influence of family factors on the incidence of lower respiratory illness during the first year of life. Brit J Prev Soc Med 30: 203--212.
  428. Leung DYM, Harbeck H, Bina P, Reiser RF, Yang E, Norris AD et al (1993): Presence of IgE antibodies to staphyloccal enterotoxins on the skin of patients with atopic dermatitis: evidence for a new group of allergens. J Clin Invest 92: 1374--1380.
  429. Li CC, Mantel N (1968): A simple method of estimating the segregation ratio under complete ascertainment. Am J Hum Genet 20: 61--81.
  430. Li H, Gao P, Qi H, Huei H, Wang C (1997): [Study on relationship between proto-oncogene expression of c-fos and c- myc in airway, lung tissue and asthma in guinea pigs]. Chung Kuo Ying Yung Sheng Li Hsueh Tsa Chih 13: 356--358.
  431. Liang KY, Beaty TH (1991): Measuring familial aggregation by using odds-ratio regression models. Genet Epidemiol 8: 361--370.
  432. Liang KY, Beaty TH, Cohen BH (1986): Application of odds ratio regression for assessing familial concordance from case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol 124: 678--683.
  433. Lichtenstein LM, MacGlashan DW, editors (1990): Atopic allergy and other hypersensitivities. Current Opinion in Immunology 2: 497--564.
  434. Lieberman J (1969): Heterozygous and homozygous alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency in patients with pulmonary emphysema. New Engl J Med 281: 279--284.
  435. Liggett SB. Genetics of beta-2-adrenergic receptor variants in asthma. Clin Exp Allerg 25 (suppl 2): . Clin Exp Allerg 25(suppl 2): 89--94.
  436. Lima JJ, Thomason DB, Mohamed MH, Eberle LV, Self TH, Johnson JA (1999): Impact of genetic polymorphisms of the beta2-adrenergic receptor on albuterol bronchodilator pharmacodynamics.. Clin Pharmacol Ther 65: 519--525.
  437. Lindmark B (1990): Asthma and heterozygous alpha-1-antichymotrypsin deficiency: a possible association. J Int Med 227: 115--118.
  438. Liu MC, Bleecker ER, Lichtenstein LM, Kagey-Sobotka A, Yaffa N, McLemore TL et al (1990): Evidence for elevated levels of histamine, prostaglandin D2, and other bronchoconstricting prostaglandins in the airways of subjects with mild asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 126--132.
  439. Lockey RF, Benedict LM, Turkeltaub PC, Bukantz SC (1987): Fatalities from immunotherapy (IT) and skin testing (ST). J Allergy Clin Immunol 79: 660--677.
  440. Longo G, Strinati R, Poli F, Fumi F (1987): Genetic factors in nonspecific bronchial hyperreactivity. An epidemiologic study. Am J Dis Child 141: 331--334.
  441. Loudon R, Murphy RLH (1984): Lung sounds. Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 663--673.
  442. Lougheed MD, Pearce-Pinto G, de Klerk NH, Ryan G, Musk AW, James A (1993): Variability of the plateau response to methacholine in subjects without respiratory symptoms. Thorax 48: 512--517.
  443. Lykken DT, McGue M, Bouchard TJ, Tellegen A (1990): Does contact lead to similarity, or similarity to contact. Behav Genet 20: 547--561.
  444. Lykken DT, Tellegen A, DeRubeis R (1978): Volunteer bias in twin research: the rule of two-thirds. Soc Biol 25: 1--9.
  445. Lympany P, Welsh KI, Christie PE, Schmitz-Schumann M, Kemeny DM, Lee TH (1993): An analysis with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes of the association between aspirin-induced asthma and antigens of the HLA system. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92: 114--123.
  446. Lympany P, Welsh KI, MacCochrane GM, Kemeny DM, Lee TH (1992): Genetic analyses using DNA polymorphism of the linkage between chromosome 11q13 and atopy and BHR to methacholine. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 619--28.
  447. Lympany P, Welsh KI, MacCochrane GM, Kemeny DM, Lee TH (1992): Genetic analysis of the linkage between chromosome 11q and atopy. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1085--92.
  448. MacDonald SM, Lichtenstein LM, Proud D, Plaut M, Naclerio RM, MacGlashan DW et al (1987): Studies of IgE-dependent histamine releasing factors: heterogeneity of IgE. J Immunol 139: 506--512.
  449. Macklem P (1990): A hypothesis linking bronchial hyperreactivity and airway inflammation: implications for therapy. Ann Allergy 64: 113--119.
  450. Mak TK (1988): Analysing intraclass correlation for dichotomous variables. Appl Statist 37: 344--352.
  451. Makker HK, Holgate ST (1993): Relation of the hypertonic saline responsiveness of the airways to exercise induced asthma symptom severity and to histamine or methacholine reactivity. Thorax 48: 142--147.
  452. Malmberg P, Larsson BM, Sundblad BM, Zhiping W (1993): Importance of the time interval between FEV1 measurements in a methacholine provocation test. Eur Resp J 6: 680--686.
  453. Manjavidze N, Lortkipanidze E, Aladashvili L, Kakauridze M (1990): The significance of genetic factors in the aetiopathogenesis of allergic diseases [abstract]. Clin Exp All 20(supp 1): 84.
  454. Manning PJ, Watson RM, Margolskee DJ, Williams VC, Schwartz JI, O'Byrne PM (1990): Inhibition of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by MK-571, a potent leukotriene D4-receptor antagonist. New Engl J Med 323: 1736--9.
  455. Mansfield LE, Hameister HH, Spaulding HS, Smith NJ, Glab N (1981): The role of the vagus nerve in airway narrowing caused by intraoesophageal hydrochloric acid provocation and oesophageal distention. Ann Allergy 47: 431--434.
  456. Mansur AH, Bishop DT, Markham AF, Morton NE, Holgate ST, Morrison JF (1999): Suggestive evidence for genetic linkage between IgE phenotypes and chromosome 14q markers.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159: 1796--1802.
  457. Mao X-Q, Shirakawa T, Yoshikawa T, Yoshikawa K, Kawai M, Sasaki S et al (1996): Association between genetic variants of mast-cell chymase and eczema. Lancet 348: 581--583.
  458. Mao XQ, Gao PS, Roberts MH, Enomoto T, Kawai M, Sasaki S, Shaldon SR, Coull P, Dake Y, Adra CN, Hagihara A, Shirakawa T, Hopkin JM (1999): Variants of endothelin-1 and its receptors in atopic asthma.. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 262: 259--262.
  459. Mao XQ, Shirakawa T, Kawai M, Enomoto T, Sasaki S, Dake Y, Kitano H, Hagihara A, Hopkin JM, Morimoto K (1998): Association between asthma and an intragenic variant of CC16 on chromosome 11q13.. Clin Genet 53: 54--56.
  460. Marks GB, Tovey ER, Green W, Shearer M, Salome CM, Woolcock AJ (1994): House dust mite allergen avoidance: a randomized controlled trial of surface chemical treatment and encasement of bedding. Clin Exp Allergy 24: 1078--1083.
  461. Marone G, Poto S, Giugliano R, Celestino D, Bonini S (1986): Control mechanisms of human basophil releasability. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 974--980.
  462. Marsh DG, Bias WB, Ishizaka K (1974): Genetic control of basal Immunoglobulin E level and its effect on specific reaginic sensitivity. Proc Nat Acad Sci 71: 3588--3592.
  463. Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Bias WB (1981): The epidemiology and genetics of atopic allergy (1991): N Engl J Med 305:1551-1559.. Marsh DG, Meyers DA, Bias WB (1981): The epidemiology and genetics of atopic allergy (1991): N Engl J Med 305: 1551--1559.
  464. Marsh DG, Neely JD, Breazeale DR, Ghosh B, Freidhoff LR, Ehrlich-Kautzky E, et al (1994): Linkage analysis of IL4 and other chromosome 5q31.1 markers and total serum immunoglobulin E concentrations. Science 264: 1152--1156.
  465. Marsh DG, Shinomiya N, Shinomiya M, Kautzky EE (1991): Molecular analysis of the HLA-D association with immune responsiveness to Amb a VI [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1(2): 204.
  466. Martin AJ, McLennan L, Landau LI, Phelan PD (1980): The natural history of childhood asthma to adult asthma. Br Med J 280: 1397--1400.
  467. Martin NG, Martin PG (1975): The inheritance of scholastic abilities in a sample of twins: I. Ascertainment of the sample and diagnosis of zygosity. Ann Hum Genet 39: 213--218.
  468. Martinati LC, Trabetti E, Casartelli A, Boner AL, Pignatti PF (1996): Affected sib-pair and mutation analyses of the high affinity IgE receptor beta chain locus in Italian families with atopic asthmatic children. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153: 1682--1685.
  469. Martinez FD (1998): Gene by environment interactions in the development of asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 5: 21--25.
  470. Martinez FD (1998): The genetics of asthma. Implications of association studies in asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 93--94.
  471. Martinez FD, Solomon S, Holberg CJ, Graves PE, Baldini M, Erickson RP (1998): Linkage of circulating eosinophils to markers on chromosome 5q.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 1739--1744.
  472. Martinez FD, Antognoni G, Macri F, Bonci E, Midulla F, De Castro G et al (1988): Parental smoking enhances bronchial responsiveness in nine-year-old children. Am Rev Respir Dis 138: 518--523.
  473. Martinez FD, Holberg CJ (1995): Segregation analysis of physician-diagnosed asthma in Hispanic and non-Hispanic white families. Clin Exp Allerg 25(suppl 2): 68--70.
  474. Martinez FD, Morgan WJ, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Taussig LM et al (1988): Diminished lung function as a predisposing factor for wheezing respiratory illness in infants. New Engl J Med 319: 1112--1117.
  475. Martinez FD, Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Morgan WJ, Taussig LM (1992): Maternal age as a risk factor for wheezing lower respiratory illnesses in the first year of life. Am J Epidemiol 136: 1258--1268.
  476. Masters S, Barret-Connor E (1985): Parasites and asthma - predictive or protective. Epidemiol Rev 7: 49--57.
  477. Matheny AP (1979): Appraisal of parental bias in twin studies: ascribed zygosity and IQ differences in twins. Acta Genet Med Gemmellol 28: 155--160.
  478. Matheny AP, Wilson RS, Dolan AB (1976): Relations between twins similarity of appearanceand behavioral similarity: testing an assumption. Behav Genet 6: 343--351.
  479. Mathieu M, Gougat C, Jaffuel D, Danielsen M, Godard P, Bousquet J, Demoly P (1999): The glucocorticoid receptor gene as a candidate for gene therapy in asthma.. Gene Ther 6: 245--252.
  480. Matsushita S, Muto M, Suemura M, Saito Y, Sasazuki T (1987): HLA-linked nonresponsiveness to Cryptomeria japonicum pollen antigen. J Immunol 138: 109--115.
  481. McCormick MC (1985): The contribution of low birth weight to infant mortality and childhood morbidity. New Engl J Med 312: 82--90.
  482. McGue M, Gerrard JW, Lebowitz MD, Rao DC (1989): Commingling in the distributions of Immunoglobulin levels. Hum Hered 39: 196--201.
  483. McKee WD (1954): The incidence and familial occurrence of allergy. J Allergy 38: 226--235.
  484. McWhorter WP, Polis MA, Kaslow RA (1989): Occurrence, predictors and consequences of adult asthma in NHANESI and Follow-up Survey. Am Rev Respir Dis 139: 721--724.
  485. Medical Research Council, Committee on the Aetiology of Chronic Bronchitis (1960): Standardized questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. Brit Med J 2: 1665.
  486. Mendell NR, Elston RC (1974): Multifactorial qualitative traits: genetic analysis and prediction of recurrence risks. Biometrics 30: 41--57.
  487. Meyer JM, Eaves LJ, Heath AC, Martin NG (1991): Estimating genetic influences on the age-at-menarche: a survival analysis approach. Am J Med Genet 39: 148--154.
  488. Meyers DA, Beaty TH, Colyer CR, Marsh DG (1991): Genetics of total serum IgE levels: a regressive model approach to segregation analysis. Genet Epidemiol 8: 351--359.
  489. Meyers DA, Beaty TH, Freidhoff LR, Marsh DG (1987): Inheritance of total serum IgE (basal levels) in man. Am J Hum Genet 41: 51--62.
  490. Meyers DA, Bias DA, Marsh DG (1982): A genetic study of total IgE level in the Amish. Hum Hered 32: 15--23.
  491. Meyers DA, Freidhoff LR, Marsh DG (1986): Predicting skin test sensitivity and total sIgE levels in family members. J Allergy Clin Immunol 77: 608--615.
  492. Meyers DA, Postma DS, Panhuysen CIM, Xu J, Amelung PJ, Levitt RC, Bleecker ER (1994): Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5. Genomics 23: 464--470.
  493. Michel FB, Bousquet J, Dannaeus A, Hamburger RN, Bellanti JA, Businco ML, Soothill J (1986): Preventive measures in early childhood allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 5: 1022--1027.
  494. Milani-Comparetti M (1970): Allergy and disease in twins. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 19: 239--241.
  495. Miles J, Shaheen Z, Tucker J, Ayres J-C (1992): Frequency of asthma in monozygous and dizygous twins in Birmingham, UK [abstract]. Eur Resp J 5: 203s.
  496. Miller RL (1999): Breathing freely: the need for asthma research on gene-environment interactions [editorial]. Am J Public Health 89: 819--822.
  497. Miller SA, Dykes DD, Polesky HF (1988): A simple salting out proedure for extracting DNA from human nucleated cells. Nucl Acids Res 16: 1215.
  498. Mills PK, Beeson WL, Fraser GE, Phillips RL (1992): Allergy and cancer: organ site-specific results from the Adventist Health Study. Am J Epidemiol 136: 287--295.
  499. Mislevy RJ (1986): Recent developments in the factor analysis of categorical variables. J of Educ Stat 11: 3--31.
  500. Mitchell C, Miles J (1983): Lower respiratory tract symptoms in Queensland schoolchildren. The questionnaire: its reliability and validity. ANZ J Med 13: 264--269.
  501. Mitchell EA, Stewart AW, Pattemore PK, Asher MI, Harrison AC, Rea HR (1989): Socioeconomic status in childhood asthma. Int J Epidemiol 18: 888--890.
  502. Mitsuyasu H, Yanagihara Y, Mao XQ, Gao PS, Arinobu Y, Ihara K, Takabayashi A, Hara T, Enomoto T, Sasaki S, Kawai M, Hamasaki N, Shirakawa T, Hopkin JM, Izuhara K (1999): Cutting edge: dominant effect of Ile50Val variant of the human IL-4 receptor alpha-chain in IgE synthesis.. J Immunol 162: 1227--1231.
  503. Miwa M, Miyake T, Yamanaka T, Sugatani J, Suzuki Y, Sakata S, Araki Y, Matsumoto M (1988): Characterization of serum Platelet-activating Factor (PAF) Acetylhydrolase. Correlation between deficiency of serum PAF Acetylhydrolase and respiratory symptoms in asthmatic children. J Clin Invest 82: 1983--1991.
  504. Moffatt MF, Cookson WO (1998): Gene identification in asthma and allergy.. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 116: 247--252.
  505. Moffatt MF, James A, Ryan G, Musk AW, Cookson WO (1999): Extended tumour necrosis factor/HLA-DR haplotypes and asthma in an Australian population sample.. Thorax 54: 757--761.
  506. Moffatt MF, Hill MR, Cornelis F, Schou C, Faux JA, Young RP et al (1994): Genetic linkage of T-cell receptor `/k complex to specific IgE responses. Lancet 343: 1597--1600.
  507. Moffatt MF, Sharp PA, Faux JA, Young RP, Cookson WOCM, Hopkin JM (1992): Factors confounding genetic linkage between atopy and chromosome 11q. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1046--1051.
  508. Montanaro A (1992): Occupational asthma associated with low molecular weight antigens. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am 12: 779--793.
  509. Morabia A, Menkes MJS, Comstock GW, Tockman MS (1990): Serum retinol and airway obstruction. Am J Epidemiol 132: 77--82.
  510. Morabia A, Sorenson A, Kumanyika SK, Abbey H, Cohen BH, Chee E (1989): Vitamin A, cigarette smoking, and airway obstruction. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 1312--1316.
  511. Mori A, Kaminuma O, Mikami T, Inoue S, Okumura Y, Akiyama K, Okudaira H (1999): Transcriptional control of the IL-5 gene by human helper T cells: IL-5 synthesis is regulated independently from IL-2 or IL-4 synthesis.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103: 0--36.
  512. Morton NE (1974): Analysis of family resemblance. I. Introduction. Am J Hum Genet 26: 318--330.
  513. Morton NE (1992): Major loci for atopy [Editorial]. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1041--1043.
  514. Morton NE (1998): The genetics of asthma. Quantitative scores for asthma and atopy.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 95--97.
  515. Morton NE, MacLean CJ (1974): Analysis of family resemblance III. Complex segregation analysis of quantitative traits. Am J Hum Genet 26: 489--503.
  516. Morton NE, Yee S, Elston RC, Lew R (1970): Discontinuity and quasi-continuity: alternative hypotheses of multifactorial inheritance. Clin Genet 1: 81--94.
  517. Muller B, Leick CA, Smith RM, Suelzer MT, Richerson HB (1993): Comparsions of specific and nonspecific bronchoprovocation in subjects with asthma, rhinitis and healthy subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91: 758--772.
  518. Murray AB, Ferguson AC, Morrison BJ (1983): Diagnosis of house dust mite allergy in asthmatic children: what constitutes a positive history. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 21--28.
  519. Muthen B (1978): Contributions to factor analysis of dichotomous variables. Psychometrika 43: 551--560.
  520. Muthen B, Hofacker C (1988): Testing the assumptions underlying tetrachoric correlations. Psychometrika 53: 563--578.
  521. Nakahama H, Obata K, Nakajima T, Nakamura H, Kitada O, Sugita M, Fujita Y, Kawada N, Moriyama T (1999): Renin-angiotensin system component gene polymorphism in Japanese bronchial asthma patients.. J Asthma 36: 187--193.
  522. Napier JA, Metzner H, Johnson BC (1972): Limitations of morbidity and mortality data obtained from family histories - a report from the Tecumseh Community Health Study. Am J Pub Health 62: 30--35.
  523. Nathan RA, Kinsman RA, Spector SL, Horton DJ (1979): Relationship between airways response to allergens and nonspecific bronchial reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 6: 491--499.
  524. Neely JD, Breazeale D, Schou C, Freidhoff LR, Beaty T, Marsh DG (1994): Sib-pair analysis of total and specific IgE and DNA polymorphisms on chromosome 11q13 in the Amish [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 93: 220.
  525. Nelson HS (1985): The atopic diseases. Ann Allergy 55: 441--447.
  526. Nickel RG, Saitta FP, Freidhoff LR, Yu XY, Ehrlich E, Barnes KC, Beaty T, Huang SK (1999): Positional candidate gene approach and functional genomics strategy in atopy gene discovery.. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 118: 282--284.
  527. Nieminen MM, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M (1991): A population-based study of bronchial asthma in adult twin pairs. Chest 100: 70--75.
  528. Niimi T, Tomita H, Sato S, Mori T, Kawaguchi H, Sugiura Y, Matsuda R (1998): Bronchial responsiveness and angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in sarcoidosis patients.. Chest 114: 495--499.
  529. Noguchi E, Shibasaki M, Arinami T, Takeda K, Yokouchi Y, Kawashima T, Yanagi H, Matsui A, Hamaguchi H (1998): Association of asthma and the interleukin-4 promoter gene in Japanese.. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 449--453.
  530. Noguchi E, Shibasaki M, Arinami T, Takeda K, Yokouchi Y, Kobayashi K, Imoto N, Nakahara S, Matsui A, Hamaguchi H (1999): Lack of association of atopy/asthma and the interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene in Japanese.. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 228--233.
  531. Noguchi E, Shibasaki M, Arinami T, Takeda K, Yokouchi Y, Kobayashi K, Imoto N, Nakahara S, Matsui A, Hamaguchi H (1999): No association between atopy/asthma and the ILe50Val polymorphism of IL- 4 receptor.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 160: 342--345.
  532. Noguchi E, Shibasaki M, Arinami T, Takeda K, Maki T, Miyamoto T et al (1997): Evidence for linkage between asthma/atopy in childhood and chromosome 5q31-q33 in a Japanese population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156: 1390--1393.
  533. Noma T, Hayashi M, Kawano Y, Yoshizawa I, Ishikawa Y, Saeki T, Aoki K, Matsuura N (1999): Functional interleukin-5 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from adolescents with mite antigen asthma in remission.. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 780--785.
  534. Northway WH, Moss RM, Carlisle KB, Parker BR, Popp RL, Pitlick PT et al (1990): Late pulmonary sequelae of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. New Engl J Med 323: 1793--1799.
  535. Nowak D, Heinrich J, Jrres R, Wassmer G, Berger J, Beck E et al (1996): Prevalence of respiratory symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy among adults: West and East Germany. Eur Respir J 9: 2541--2552.
  536. O'Connell DL, Heller RF, Roberts DCK, Allen JR, Knapp JC, Steele PL, Silove D (1988): Twin study of genetic and environmental effects on lipid levels. Genet Epidemiol 5: 323--342.
  537. O'Connor G, Sparrow D, Taylor D, Segal M, Weiss S (1987): Analysis of dose-response curves to methacholine. Am Rev Respir Dis 136: 1412--1417.
  538. O'Hehir RE, Eckels DD, Frew AJ, Kay AB, Lamb JR (1988): MHC-class II restriction specificity of cloned human T lymphocytes reactive with Dermatophagoides farinae (house dust mite). Immunology 64: 627--631.
  539. O'Hehir RE, Garman RD, Greenstein JL, Lamb JR (1991): The specificity and regulation of T-cell responsiveness to allergens. Ann Rev Immunol 9: 67--95.
  540. O'Hollaren MT (1992): Occupational asthma due to high molecular weight allergens. Immunol Allergy Clinic N Am 12: 795--817.
  541. O'Hollaren MT, Yunginger JW, Offord KP, Somers MJ, O'Connell EJ, Ballard DJ, Sachs MI (1991): Exposure to an aeroallergen as a possible precipitating factor in respiratory arrest in young patients with asthma. New Engl J Med 324: 359--363.
  542. O'Keefe S, Gzel A, Drury R, Cullina M, Greally J, Finnegan P (1991): Immunoglobulin G subclasses and spirometry in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Resp J 4: 932--936.
  543. Oakes D (1982): A model for association in bivariate survival data. J R Statist Soc B 44: 414--422.
  544. Oakes D (1986): Semiparametric inference in a model for association in bivariate survival data. Biometrika 73: 353--361.
  545. Oakes D (1989): Bivariate survival models induced by frailties. J Am Statist Assoc 84: 487--493.
  546. Oakeshott JG, Muir A, Clark P, Martin NG, Wilson SR, Whitfield JB (1985): Effects of the protease inhibitor (Pi) polymorphism on alpha-1-antitrypsin concentration and elastase inhibitory capacity in human serum. Ann Hum Biol 12:149-160. y Office of Surveillance and Analysis, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (1992): Asthma - United States, 1980-1990. MMWR 41: 733--735.
  547. Ober C, Cox NJ (1998): The genetics of asthma. Mapping genes for complex traits in founder populations.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 101--105.
  548. Ober C, Cox NJ, Abney M, Di Rienzo A, Lander ES, Changyaleket B, Gidley H, Kurtz B, Lee J, Nance M, Pettersson A, Prescott J, Richardson A, Schlenker E, Summerhill E, Willadsen S, Parry R (1998): Genome-wide search for asthma susceptibility loci in a founder population. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma.. Hum Mol Genet 7: 1393--1398.
  549. Ohman JL, Sparrow D, MacDonald MR (1993): New onset wheezing in an older male population: evidence of allergen sensitization in a longitudinal study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 91: 752--757.
  550. Okamura K, Tada T (1971): Regulation of homocytotropic antibody formation in the rat. J Immunol 106: 1012--1018.
  551. Olsson U (1979): Maximum likelihood estimation of the polychoric correlation coefficient. Psychometrika 44: 443--460.
  552. Ordman D (1968): Asthma in the Tristan da Cunha islanders. J Asthma Res 5: 177--190.
  553. Ott J (1979): Maximum likelihood estimation by counting methods under polygenic and mixed models in human pedigrees. Am J Hum Genet 31: 161--175.
  554. Ownby DR, Johnson CC, Peterson EL (1991): Maternal smoking does not influence cord serum IgE or IgD concentrations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 88: 555--560.
  555. Oxelius V-A (1984): Immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses and human disease. Am J Med 76 (Suppl 3A): 7--18.
  556. Oxelius V-A (1990): Correlation between atopy and Gm allotypes. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 91: 54--57.
  557. Oxelius V-A, Hultquist C, Husby S (1993): Gm allotypes as indicators of non-atopic and atopic bronchial asthma. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol 101: 66--71.
  558. Oxelius VA, Carlsson AM, Aurivillius M (1998): Alternative G1m, G2m and G3m allotypes of IGHG genes correlate with atopic and nonatopic pathways of immune regulation in children with bronchial asthma.. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 115: 215--219.
  559. Ozyilkan E, Simsek H, Telatar H (1994): Absence of asthma in patients with familial Mediterranean fever. Isr J Med Sci 30: 237--8.
  560. Paggiaro P, Bacci E, Paoletti P, Bernard P, Dente FL, Marchetti G et al (1990): Bronchoalveolar lavage and morphology of the airways after cessation of exposure in asthmatic subjects sensitized to toluene diisocyanate. Chest 98: 536--542.
  561. Palmer LJ, Daniels SE, Rye PJ, Gibson NA, Tay GK, Cookson WO, Goldblatt J, Burton PR, LeSouef PN (1998): Linkage of chromosome 5q and 11q gene markers to asthma-associated quantitative traits in Australian children.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 1825--1830.
  562. Palmer LJ, Burton PR, Gurrin LC, Faux JA, LeSou f PN, James AL et al (1996): Variance components modelling of quantitative traits related to the asthma phenotype in a population-based sample of nuclear families [abstract]. Genet Epidemiol 13: 304.
  563. Parks T, Felix K, Rice T, Subbarao PV, Marimuthu KM, Rao DC (1990): A genetic study of Immunoglobulin E and atopic disease based on families ascertained through asthmatic children. Hum Hered 40: 69--76.
  564. Pastorello E, Ortolani C, Luraghi MT, Pravettoni V, Sillano V, Froldi M et al (1985): Evaluation of allergic etiology in perennial rhinitis. Ann Allergy 55: 854--856.
  565. Pattemore PK, Asher MI, Harrison AC, Mitchell EA, Rea HH, Stewart AW (1990): The interrelationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness, the diagnosis of asthma, and asthma symptoms. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 549--554.
  566. Pearce N, Weiland S, Keil U, Langridge P, Anderson HR, Strachan D et al (1993): Self-reported prevalence of asthma symptoms in children in Austrlalia, England, Germany and New Zealand: an international comparison using the ISAAC protocol. Eur Resp J 6: 1455--1461.
  567. Pearson K (1901): Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution, VII: On the correlation of characters not quantitatively measurable. Philos Trans R Soc Lond A 195: 1--47.
  568. Peat JK, Britton WJ, Salome CM, Woolcock AJ (1987): Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in two populations of Australian schoolchildren. III. Effect of exposure to environmental allergens. Clinical Allergy 17: 291--300.
  569. Peat JK, Haby M, Spijker J, Berry G, Woolcock AJ (1992): Prevalence of asthma in adults in Busselton, Western Australia. Br Med J 305: 1326--1329.
  570. Peat JK, Salome CM, Bauman A, Toelle BG, Wachinger SL, Woolcock AJ (1991): Repeatability of histamine bronchial challenge and comparability with methacholine bronchial challenge in a population of Australian schoolchildren. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 338--343.
  571. Peat JK, Salome CM, Berry G, Woolcock AJ (1991): Relation of dose-response slope to respiratory symptoms in a population of Australian schoolchildren. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 663--667.
  572. Peat JK, Tovey E, Mellis CM, Leeder SR, Woolcock AJ (1993): Importance of house dust mite and Alternaria allergens in childhood asthma: an epidemiological study in two climate areas of Australia. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 812--820.
  573. Peat JK, Woolcock AJ (1991): Sensitivity to common allergens: relation to respiratory symptoms and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in children from three different climate areas of Australia. Clin Exp Allergy 21: 573--581.
  574. Peckham C, Butler N (1978): A national study of asthma in childhood. J Epidemiol Comm Health 32: 79--85.
  575. Pennington BF, Smith SD, Kimberling WJ, Green PA, Haith MM (1987): Left-handedness and immune disorders in familial dyslexics. Arch Neurol 44: 634--639.
  576. Penrose LS (1935): The detection of autosomal linkage in data which consists of brothers and sisters of unspecified parentage. Ann Eugen 18: 120--124.
  577. Perichon B, Gu XF, Ostinelli I, Braunstein G, Lockhart I, Marsac I et al (1991): Intriguing prevalence of coeliac disease associated HLA Class II DNA-haplotypes in aspirin sensitization of atopic asthmatic patients [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1(2): 204.
  578. Petterson B, Nelson KB, Watson L, Stanley F (1993): Twins, triplets and cerebral palsy in births in Western Australia in the 1980s. Brit Med J 307: 1239--1243.
  579. Picado C, Castillo JA, Schinca N, Pujades M, Ordinas A, Coronas A et al (1988): Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax 43: 93--97.
  580. Piessens MF, Marien G, Stevens E (1984): Decreased haptoglobin levels in respiratory allergy. Clin Allergy 14: 287--293.
  581. Pirson F, Charpin D, Sansonetti M, Lanteaume A, Kulling G (1991): Is intrinsic asthma a hereditary disease. Allergy 46: 367--371.
  582. Pistelli R, Forastiere F, Corbo GM, Dell'Orco V, Brancato G, Agabiti N et al (1993): Respiratory symptoms and bronchial responsiveness are related to dietary salt intake and urinary potassium excretion in male children. Eur Resp J 6: 517--522.
  583. Platt-Mills TAE, Aalberse RC, Bessot JC, Bjorksten B, Bischoff E, Bousquet J et al (1989): Dust mite allergens and asthma - a worldwide problem. J Allergy Clin Immunol 83: 416--427.
  584. Platt-Mills TAE, Mitchell BR, Nock P, Tovey ER, Moszoro H, Wilkins SR (1982): Reduction of bronchial hyperreactivity during prolonged allergen avoidance. Lancet 2: 675--678.
  585. Plaut M, Pierce JH, Watson CJ, Hanley-Hyde J, Nordan RP, Paul WE (1988): Mast cell lines produce lymphokines in response to cross-linkage of FcnRI or to calcium ionophores. Nature 339: 64--67.
  586. Popa VT (1980): Respiratory allergy to ragweed: correlation of bronchial responses to allergen with bronchial responses to histamine and circulating Immunoglobulin E. J Allergy Clin Immunol 68: 389--397.
  587. Popa VT, Singleton J (1988): Provocation dose and discriminant analysis in histamine bronchoprovocation: are the current predictive data satisfactory. Chest 94: 466--472.
  588. Pope CA, Dockery DW, Spengler JD, Raizenne ME (1991): Respiratory health and PM10 pollution: a daily time series analysis. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 668--674.
  589. Postma DS, Bleecker ER, Amelung PJ et al (1995): Genetic susceptibility to asthma - bronchial hyperresponsiveness coinherited with a major gene for atopy. New Engl J Med 333: 894--900.
  590. Potter PC, Van Wyk L, Martin M, Lentes KU, Dowdle EB (1993): Genetic polymorphism of the beta-2 adrenergic receptor in atopic and non-atopic subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 874--877.
  591. Prieto L, Marin J (1993): Methacholine inhalation challenge. Practical consequences of using duplicate spirograms after each concentration. Ann Allergy 70: 487--490.
  592. Quiralte J, Sanchez-Garcia F, Torres MJ, Blanco C, Castillo R, Ortega N, de Castro FR, Perez-Aciego P, Carrillo T (1999): Association of HLA-DR11 with the anaphylactoid reaction caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 103: 685--689.
  593. Ramos-Arroyo MA, Ulbright TM, Yu P-L, Christian JC (1988): Twin study: relationship between birth weight, zygosity, placentation and pathologic placental changes. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 37: 229--238.
  594. Ramsay CE, Hayden CM, Tiller KJ, Burton PR, Hagel I, Palenque M, Lynch NR, Goldblatt J, LeSouef PN (1999): Association of polymorphisms in the beta2-adrenoreceptor gene with higher levels of parasitic infection.. Hum Genet 104: 269--274.
  595. Rao DC, Lalouel JM, Morton NE, Gerrard JW (1980): Immunoglobulin E revisited. Am J Hum Genet 32: 620--625.
  596. Ratner B, Silberman DE (1952): Allergy - its distribution and the hereditary concept. Ann Allergy 9: 1--20.
  597. Reaven GM (1991): Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia in the aetiology and clinical course of hypertension. Am J Med 90(Supp 2A): 7S--12S.
  598. Redline S, Tishler PV, Lewitter FI, Tager IB, Munoz A, Speizer FE (1987): Assessment of genetic and nongenetic influences on pulmonary function. Am Rev Respir Dis 135: 217--222.
  599. Reed T, Carmelli D, Rosenman RH (1991): Effects of placentation on selected type A behaviours in adult males in the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) twin study. Behav Genet 21: 9--19.
  600. Reed T, Christian JC, Wood PD, Schaefer EJ (1991): Influence of placentation on high density lipoprotein in adult males: the NHLBI twin study. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 40: 353--359.
  601. Reich T, James JW, Morris CA (1972): The use of multiple thresholds in determining the mode of transmission of semi-continuous traits. Ann Hum Genet 36: 163--184.
  602. Reid MJ, Lockey RF, Turkeltaub PC, Platt-Mills TAE (1993): Survey of fatalities from skin testing and immunotherapy 1985-1990. J Allergy Clin Immunol 92: 6--15.
  603. Reidel F, Krmer M, Scheibenbogen C, Rieger CHL (1988): Effects of SO2 exposure on allergic sensitization in the guinea pig. J Allergy Clin Immunol 82: 527--34.
  604. Reihsaus E, Innis M, Macintyre N, Liggett SB (1993): Mutations in the Gene Encoding for the beta-2-Adrenergic Receptor in Normal and Asthmatic Subjects. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 8: 334--339.
  605. Rende RD, Plomin R, Vandenberg SG (1990): Who discovered the twin method. Behav Genet 20: 277--285.
  606. Reynolds P, Kaplan GA (1987): Asthma and cancer [letter]. Am J Epidemiol 125: 539--540.
  607. Ricci M (1992): T Cells, cytokines, IgE and allergic inflammation. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 99: 165--71.
  608. Ricci M, Rossi O, Bertoni M, Matucci A (1993): The importance of Th2-like cells in the pathogenesis of airway allergic inflammation. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 360--369.
  609. Rice J, Gottesman II, Suarez BK, O'Rourke DH, Reich T (1982): Ascertain-ment bias for non-twin relatives in twin proband studies. Hum Hered 32: 202--207.
  610. Rich SS (1998): Analytic options for asthma genetics.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 84--87.
  611. Rich SS, Roitman-Johnson B, Greenberg B, Roberts S, Blumenthal MN (1992): Genetic analysis of atopy in three large kindreds: no evidence for linkage to D11S97. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 1070--1076.
  612. Richardson VF, Larcher VF, Price JF (1983): A common congenital immunodeficiency predisposing to infection and atopy in infancy. Arch Dis Child 58: 799--802.
  613. Rieger S, Riemer H, Mannhalter C (1999): Multiplex PCR assay for the detection of genetic variants of alpha1- antitrypsin.. Clin Chem 45: 688--690.
  614. Rijcken B, Schouten JP, Weiss ST, Meinesz AF, De Vries K, Van Der Lende R (1989): The distribution of bronchial responsiveness to histamine in symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects. A population-based analysis of various indices of responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 615--623.
  615. Rijcken B, Schouten JP, Weiss ST, Rosner B, De Vries K, Van Der Lende R (1993): Long-term variability of bronchial responsiveness to histamine in a random population sample of adults. Am Rev Respir Dis 148: 944--949.
  616. Risch N (1982): Estimating morbidity risks with variable age of onset: review of methods and a maximum likelihood approach. Biometrics 39: 929--939.
  617. Risch N (1990): Linkage strategies for genetically complex traits. I. Multilocus models. Am J Hum Genet 46: 222--228.
  618. Robertson CF, Heycock E, Bishop J, Nolan T, Olinsky A, Phelan P (1991): Prevalence of asthma in Melbourne schoolchildren: changes over 26 years. Br Med J 302: 1116--1118.
  619. Robinette CD, Fraumeni JF (1978): Asthma and subsequent mortality in World War II veterans. J Chronic Dis 31: 619--624.
  620. Robinson DS, Hamid Q, Ying S, Tsicopoulos A, Barkans J, Bentley AM et al (1992): Predominant TH2-like bronchoalveolar T-lymphocyte population in atopic asthma. New Engl J Med 326: 298--304.
  621. Roche WR, Beasley R, Williams JH, Holgate ST (1989): Subepithelial fibrosis in the bronchi of asthmatics. Lancet i: 520--524.
  622. Rohrbach M, Frey U, Kraemer R, Liechti-Gallati S (1999): A variant in the gene for GM-CSF, I117T, is associated with atopic asthma in a Swiss population of asthmatic children.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104: 247--248.
  623. Rohrbach M, Kraemer R, Liechti-Gallati S (1998): Screening of the Fc epsilon RI-beta-gene in a Swiss population of asthmatic children: no association with E237G and identification of new sequence variations.. Dis Markers 14: 177--186.
  624. Roitman-Johnson B, Blumenthal M (1988): Family analysis of histamine release [abstract]. J Allergy Clin Immunol 81: 232.
  625. Romagnani S (1990): Regulation and deregulation of human IgE synthesis. Immunol Today 11: 316--321.
  626. Rona RJ, Chinn S (1993): Lung function, respiratory illness, and passive smoking in British primary school children. Thorax 48: 21--25.
  627. Rona RJ, Gulliford MC, Chinn (1993): Effects of prematurity and intrauterine growth on respiratory health and lung function in childhood. Brit Med J 306: 817--820.
  628. Ronchetti R, Lucarini N, Lucarelli P, Martinez F, Macri F, Carapella E et al (1984): A genetic basis for heterogeneity of asthma syndrome in pediatric ages: Adenosine deaminase phenotypes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74: 81--84.
  629. Ronchetti R, Macri F, Ciofetta G, Indinnimeo L, Cutrera R, Bonci E et al (1990): Increased serum IgE and increased prevalence of eosinophilia in 9-year-old children of smoking parents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 74: 81--84.
  630. Roorda RJ, Gerritsen J, Van Aalderen WMC, Knol K (1992): Influence of a positive family history and associated allergic diseases on the natural course of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 627--34.
  631. Roorda RJ, Gerritsen J, Van Aalderen WMC, Knol K (1993): Skin reactivity and eosinophil count in relation to the outcome of childhood asthma. Eur Respir J 6: 509--516.
  632. Rose RJ, Kaprio J, with Williams CJ, Viken R, Obremski K (1990): Social contact and sibling similarity: facts, issues and red herrings. Behav Genet 20: 763--778.
  633. Rosenwasser LJ (1998): Structure/function variants as candidate genes in asthma: linkage vs. association for relevance.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 90--92.
  634. Rosner B (1982): On the estimation and testing of interclass correlations: the general use of multiple replicates for each variable. Am J Epidemiol 116: 722--730.
  635. Rotter JI, Landaw EM (1984): Measuring the genetic contribution of a single locus to a multilocus disease. Clin Genet 26: 529--42.
  636. Ruiz RGG, Kemeny DM, Mariani F, Price JF (1992): Early immune responses to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and atopic predisposition. Arch Dis Child 67: 1023--1026.
  637. Ryan G, Dolovich MB, Roberts RS, Frith P, Juniper EF, Hargreave FE et al (1981): Standardisation of inhalation provocation tests: two techniques of aerosol generation and inhalation compared. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 195--199.
  638. Ryan G, Latimer KM, Dolovich J, Hargreaves FE (1982): Bronchial responsiveness to histamine: relationship to diurnal variation of peak flow rate, improvement after bronchodilator, and airway calibre. Thorax 37: 423--429.
  639. Rybicki BA, Beaty TH, Cohen BH (1990): Major genetic mechanisms in pulmonary function. J Clin Epidemiol 43: 667--675.
  640. Sakula A (1988): A history of asthma. The FitzPatrick lecture 1987. J R Coll Physicians Lond 22: 36--44.
  641. Salinas AE, Wong MG (1999): Glutathione S-transferases--a review.. Curr Med Chem 6: 279--309.
  642. Salome CM, Peat JK, Britton WJ, Woolcock AJ (1987): Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in two populations of Australian schoolchildren. I. Relation to respiratory symptoms and diagnosed asthma. Clin Allergy 17: 271--281.
  643. Sampson HA (1992): Atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy 69: 469--479.
  644. Sanda T, Yasue T, Oohashi M, Yasue E (1992): Effectiveness of house dust-mite allergen avoidance through clean room therapy in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 89: 653--657.
  645. Sandford AJ, Shirakawa T, Moffatt MF, Daniels SE, Ra C, Faux JA et al (1993): Localisation of atopy and beta subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcnRI) on chromosome 11q. Lancet 341: 332--4.
  646. Sandford AJ, Weir T, Pare P (1996): The genetics of asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153: 1749--1765.
  647. Sarafino EP, Goldfedder J (1995): Genetic factors in the presence, severity, and triggers of asthma. Arch Dis Child 73: 112--116.
  648. Satoh N, Asano K, Naoki K, Fukunaga K, Iwata M, Kanazawa M, Yamaguchi K (1999): Plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency in Japanese patients with asthma.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 159: 974--979.
  649. Scarr S (1968): Environmental bias in twin studies. Eugenics Q 15: 34--40.
  650. Schleimer RP (1990): Effects of glucocorticosteroids on inflammatory cells relevant to their therapeutic applications in asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: S59--S69.
  651. Schork NJ, Schork MA (1989): Testing separate families of segregation hypotheses: bootstrap methods. Am J Hum Genet 45: 803--813.
  652. Schroeder SA, Gaughan DM, Swift M (1995): Protection against bronchial asthma by CFTR Delta-F508 mutation: A heterozygote advantage in cystic fibrosis. Nature Med 1: 703--705.
  653. Schwartz AG, Boehnke M, Moll P (1988): Family risk index as a measure of familial heterogeneity of cancer risk: a population-based study in metropolitan Detroit. Am J Epidemiol 128: 524--535.
  654. Schwartz J (1992): Particulate air pollution and daily mortality: a synthesis. Public Health Rev 19: 39--60.
  655. Schwartz J, Gold G, Dockery DW, Weiss ST, Speizer FE (1990): Predictors of asthma and persistent wheeze in a national sample of children in the United States: association with social class, perinatal events, and race. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 555--562.
  656. Schwartz J, Slater D, Larson TV, Pierson WE, Koenig JQ (1993): Particulate air pollution and hospital emergency room visits for asthma in Seattle. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 826--831.
  657. Schwartz J, Weiss ST (1990): Dietary factors and their relation to respiratory symptoms. The second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Epidemiol 132: 67--76.
  658. Schwartzman RM, Rockey JH, Halliwell RE (1971): Canine reaginic antibody. Characterization of the spontaneous anti-ragweed and induced anti-dinitrophenyl reaginic antibodies of the atopic dog. Clin Exp Immunol 9: 549--569.
  659. Schweisfurth H (1989): Serum kininase I and II in patients with extrinsic and intrinsic asthma. Adv Exp Med Biol 247A: 599--602.
  660. Scott GC, Kung M (1985): How many spirograms for a histamine challenge. Am Rev Respir Dis 132: 268--271.
  661. Sears MR, Burrows B, Flannery EM, Herbison GP, Hewitt CJ, Holdaway MD (1991): Relation between airway responsiveness and serum IgE in children with asthma and in apparently normal children. New Engl J Med 325: 1067--1071.
  662. Sears MR, Herbison GP, Holdaway MD, Hewitt CJ, Flannery EM, Silva PA (1989): The relative risks of sensitivity to grass pollen, house dust mite and cat dander in the development of childhood asthma. Clin Exp Allergy 19: 419--424.
  663. Selvin S (1977): Efficiency of genetic systems for diagnosis of twin zygosity. Acta Genet Med Gemellol 26: 81--82.
  664. Senechal H, Geny S, Desvaux FX, Busson M, Mayer C, Aron Y, Oster JP, Bessot JC, Peltre G, Pauli G, Swierczewski E (1999): Genetics and specific immune response in allergy to birch pollen and food: evidence of a strong, positive association between atopy and the HLA class II allele HLA-DR7.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104: 395--401.
  665. Shah PKD, Lakhotia M, Mehta S, Jain SK, Gupta GL (1990): Clinical dysautonomia in patients with bronchial asthma. Chest 98: 1408--1413.
  666. Shaheen SO, Aaby P, Hall AJ, et al (1996): Measles and atopy in Guinea-Bissau. Lancet 347: 1792--96.
  667. Shaw RA, Crane J, O'Donnell TV (1991): Asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy in a Maori and European adolescent population. NZJ Med 104: 175--179.
  668. Sheehan JK, Howard M, Richardson PS, Longwill T, Thornton DJ (1999): Physical characterization of a low-charge glycoform of the MUC5B mucin comprising the gel-phase of an asthmatic respiratory mucous plug.. Biochem J 338 ( Pt 2): 507--513.
  669. Sherman CB, Tosteson TD, Tager IB, Speizer FE, Weiss ST (1990): Early childhood predictors of asthma. Am J Epidemiol 132: 83--95).
  670. Shirakawa T, Enomoto T, Shimazu S, Hopkin JM (1997): The inverse association between tuberculin response and atopic disorder. Science 275:77-97. q Shoukri MM, Ward RH (1989): Use of regression models to estimate genetic parameters and measures of familial resemblance in man. Appl Statist 38: 467--479.
  671. Shirakawa T, Hashimoto T, Furuyama J, Takeshita T, Morimoto K (1994): Linkage between severe atopy and chromosome 11q13 in Japanese families. Clin Genet 46: 228--232.
  672. Shirakawa T, Mao X-Q, Sasaki S, Enomoto T, Kawai M, Morimoto K, Hopkin JM (1996): Association between atopic asthma and a coding variant of FcnRI-beta in a Japanese population. Hum Mol Genet 5: 1129--1130.
  673. Shirakawa T, Mao X-Q, Sasaki S, Kawai M, Morimoto K, Hopkin JM (1996): Association between FceRI-beta and atopic disorder in a Japanese population. Lancet 347: 394--395.
  674. Shirakawa T, Morimoto K, Hashimoto T, Furuyama J, Yamamoto M, Takai S (1991): Linkage between IgE responses underlying asthma and rhinitis (atopy) and chromosome 11q in Japanese families [abstract]. Cytogenet Cell Genet 58: 1970.
  675. Sibbald B (1980): Genetic basis of sex differences in the prevalence of asthma. Br J Dis Chest 74: 93--94.
  676. Sibbald B, Horn MEC, Brain EA, Gregg I (1980): Genetic factors in childhood asthma. Thorax 35: 671--674.
  677. Silverman E, In KH, Yandava C, Drazen JM (1998): Pharmacogenetics of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway in asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 5: 164--170.
  678. Silverman EK, Province MA, Campbell EJ, Pierce JA, Rao DC (1990): Biochemical intermediates in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: residual family resemblance for total alpha-1-antitrypsin, oxidized alpha-1-antitrypsin, and immunoglobulin E after adjustment for the effect of the Pi locus. Genet Epidemiol 7: 137--149.
  679. Sistonen P, Johnsson M, Koskenvuo M, Aho K (1980): Serum IgE levels in twins. Hum Hered 30: 155--158.
  680. Slavin RG (1982): Relationship of nasal disease and sinusitis to bronchial asthma. Ann Allergy 49: 76--80.
  681. Sluiter HJ, Ko ter GH, de Monchy JGR, Postma DS, de Vries K, Orie NGM (1991): The Dutch hypothesis (chronic non-specific lung disease) revisited. Eur Respir J 4: 479--489.
  682. Slutsky AS (1998): Genetics of asthma: a primer.. Can Respir J 5 Suppl A: 4--8.
  683. Slutsky AS (1999): Genetics of asthma: from chicken soup to Napoleon to Toronto. J Clin Pharmacol 39: 246--251.
  684. Smith C (1974): Concordance in twins: methods and interpretations. Am J Hum Genet 26: 454--466.
  685. Smith C (1976): Statistical resolution of genetic heterogeneity in familial disease. Ann Hum Genet 39: 281--291.
  686. Smith JM, Cadoret C (1990): Allergic rhinitis and asthma in adoptees [abstract]. Clin Exp Allergy 20(Suppl 1): 84.
  687. Smith TF, Morris EC, Bain RC (1984): IgG subclasses in nonallergic children with chronic chest symptoms. J Pediatr 105: 896--900.
  688. Soriano JB, Ercilla G, Sunyer J, Real FX, Lazaro C, Rodrigo M et al (1997): HLA Class II genes in soybean epidemic asthma patients. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 156: 1394--1398.
  689. Spain WC, Cooke RA (1924): Studies in specific hypersensitiveness XI. The familial occurrence of hay fever and bronchial asthma. J Immunol 9: 521--569.
  690. Sparrow D, O'Connor G, Weiss ST (1988): The relation of airways responsiveness and atopy to the development of chronic obstructive lung disease. Epidemiol Rev 10: 29--47.
  691. Sparrow D, O'Connor GT, Rosner B, Segal MR, Weiss ST (1991): The influence of age and level of pulmonary function on nonspecific airway responsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 143: 978--982.
  692. Sparrow D, O'Connor GT, Rosner B, Weiss ST (1991): Methacholine airway responsiveness and 24-hour urine excretion of sodium and potassium. Am Rev Respir Dis 144: 722--725.
  693. Speizer FE, Tager IB (1979): Epidemiology of chronic mucus hypersecretion and obstructive airway disease. Epidemiol Rev 1: 124--142.
  694. Spielman RS, Ewens WJ (1996): The TDT and other family-based tests for linkage disequilibrium and association [editorial]. Am J Hum Genet 59: 983--989.
  695. Spielman RS, McGinnis RE, Ewens WJ (1993): Transmission test for linkage disequilibrium: the insulin gene region and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Am J Hum Genet 52: 506--516.
  696. Spina D, Rigby PJ, Paterson JW, Goldie RG (1989): Autoradiographic localization of beta-adrenoceptors in the asthmatic human lung. Am Rev Respir Dis 140: 1410--1415.
  697. Spina D, Rigby PJ, Paterson JW, Goldie RG (1989): alpha-1-adrenoceptor function and autoradiographic distribution in the human asthmatic lung. Br J Pharmacol 97: 701--708.
  698. Sporik R, Holgate ST, Platt-Mills TAE, Cogswell JJ (1990): Exposure to house-dust mite allergen (Der p I) and the development of asthma in childhood. New Engl J Med 323: 502--7.
  699. Stafforini DM, Numao T, Tsodikov A, Vaitkus D, Fukuda T, Watanabe N, Fueki N, McIntyre TM, Zimmerman GA, Makino S, Prescott SM (1999): Deficiency of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase is a severity factor for asthma. J Clin Invest 103: 989--997.
  700. Stafforini DM, Satoh K, Atkinson DL et al (1996): Platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase deficiency. A missense mutation near the active site of an anti-inflammatory phospholipase. J Clin Invest 97: 2784--2791.
  701. Stine OC, Xu J, Meyers DA, Bleecker ER (1998): Approaches to fine mapping in asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 1: 98--100.
  702. Storer BE, Wacholder S, Breslow NE (1983): Maximum likelihood fitting of general risk models to stratified data. Appl Stat 32: 673--686.
  703. Strachan DP (1988): Damp housing and childhood asthma: validation of reporting of symptoms. Br Med J 297: 1223--1226.
  704. Strachan DP (1989): Hayfever, hygiene and household size. Br Med J 299: 1259--1260.
  705. Strachan DP, Anderson HR, Bland JM, Peckham C (1988): Asthma as a link between chest illness in childhood and chronic cough and phlegm in young adults. Br Med J 296: 890--893.
  706. Strachan DP, Golding J, Anderson HR (1990): Regional variations in wheezing illness in British children: effect of migration during early childhood. J Epidemiol Comm Hlth 44: 231--236.
  707. Strachan DP, Harkins LS, Johnston IDA, Anderson HR (1997): Childhood antecedents of allergic sensitization in young British adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 99: 6--12.
  708. Strachan DP, Jarvis MJ, Feyerabend C (1990): The relationship of salivary cotinine to respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and exercise-induced bronchospasm in seven-year-old children. Am Rev Respir Dis 142: 147--151.
  709. Strauss RH, McFadden ER, Ingram RH, Deal EC, Jaeger JL et al (1978): Influence of heat and humidity on the airway obstruction induced by exercise in asthma. J Clin Invest 61: 433--440.
  710. Strober W, Sneller MC (1991): IgA deficiency. Ann Allergy 66: 363--375.
  711. Stromberg LGE, Ludvigsson GJ, Bjorksten B (1995): Atopic allergy and delayed hypersensitivity in children with diabetes. J Allergy Clin Immunol 96: 188--192.
  712. Studdy PR, Bird R (1989): Serum angiotensin converting enzyme in sarcoidosis - its value in present clinical practice. Ann Clin Biochem 26: 13--18.
  713. Suarez BK, Reich T, Trost J (1976): Limits of the general two-allele single locus model with incomplete penetrance. Ann Hum Genet 40: 231--244.
  714. Suarez BK, Rice J, Reich T (1978): The generalised sib pair IBD distribution: its use in the detection of linkage. Ann Hum Genet 42: 87--94.
  715. Sue MA, Gordon EH, Freund LH (1992): Utility of additional skin testing in "nonallergic" asthma. Ann Allergy 68: 395--397.
  716. Suphioglu C, Singh MB, Taylor P, Bellomo R, Holmes P, Puy R, Knox RB (1992): Mechanism of grass-pollen-induced asthma. Lancet 339: 569--572.
  717. Sutton BJ, Gould HJ (1993): The human IgE network. Nature 366: 421--428.
  718. Svartengren M, Ericsson CH, Mossberg B, Camner P (1990): Bronchial reactivity and atopy in asthma discordant monozygotic twins. Ann Allergy 64: 124--128.
  719. Svartengren M, Ericsson CH, Philipson K, Mossberg B, Camner P (1989): Tracheobronchial clearance in asthma discordant monozygotic twins. Respiration 56: 70--79.
  720. Svenson LW, Woodhead SE, Platt GH (1993): Estimating the prevalence of asthma in Alberta: a study using provincial health care records. Chronic Diseases In Canada 14(2): 28--33.
  721. Svensson A, Edman B, Moller H (1985): A diagnostic tool for atopic dermatitis based on clinical criteria. Acta Derm Venereol 114(Supp): 33--40.
  722. Swineford O (1965): Definition of asthma. A critical review. One brief and one comprehensive definition. J Asthma Res 2: 283--292.
  723. Symula DJ, Frazer KA, Ueda Y, Denefle P, Stevens ME, Wang ZE, Locksley R, Rubin EM (1999): Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice.. Nat Genet 23: 241--244.
  724. Szentivanyi A (1968): The beta adrenergic theory of the atopic abnormality in bronchial asthma. J Allergy 42: 203--232.
  725. Tager IR, Rosner B, Tishler PV, Speizer FE, Kass EH (1976): Household aggregation of pulmonary function and chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 114: 485--492.
  726. Tai P-C Spry CJF, Peterson C, Venge P, Olsson I (1984): Monoclonal antibodies distinguish between storage and secreted forms of eosinophil cationic protein. Nature 309: 182--184.
  727. Takao A, Shimoda T, Kohno S, Asai S, Harda S (1998): Correlation between alcohol-induced asthma and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase-2 genotype.. J Allergy Clin Immunol 101: 576--580.
  728. Tan EC, Lee BW, Tay AW, Chew FT, Tay AH (1999): Asthma and TNF variants in Chinese and Malays.. Allergy 54: 402--403.
  729. Tan S, Hall IP, Dewar J, Dow E, Lipworth B (1997): Association between beta-2-adrenoceptor polymorphism and susceptibility to bronchodilator densensitisation in moderately severe stable asthmatics. Lancet 350: 995--999.
  730. Tanaka K, Sugiura H, Uehara M, Sato H, Hashimoto-Tamaoki T, Furuyama J (1999): Association between mast cell chymase genotype and atopic eczema: comparison between patients with atopic eczema alone and those with atopic eczema and atopic respiratory disease.. Clin Exp Allergy 29: 800--803.
  731. Tarone RE (1979): Testing the goodness of fit of the binomial distribution. Biometrika 66: 585--590.
  732. Tashkin DP, Simmons MS, Chang P, Liu H, Coulson AH (1993): Effects of smoked substance abuse on nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness. Am Rev Respir Dis 147: 97--103.
  733. Taylor R, CominoE, Bauman A (1997): Asthma mortality in Australia 1920-94: age, period and cohort effects. J Epidemiol Community Health 51: 408--411.
  734. The Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) (1997): A genome-wide search for asthma susceptibility loci in ethnically diverse populations. Nature Genetics 15: 389--392.
  735. Thode HC, Finch SJ, Mendell NR (1988): Simulated percentage points for the null distribution of the likelihood ratio test for a mixture of two normals. Biometrics 44: 1195--1201.
  736. Thomas A (1991): Gene hunting with gradients of likelihood. J R Statist Soc B 53: 3--26.
  737. Thomas DC, Langholz B, Mack W, Floderus B (1990): Bivariate survival models for analysis of genetic and environmental effects in twins. Genet Epidemiol 7: 121--135.
  738. Thomas NS, Holgate ST (1998): Genes for asthma on chromosome 11: an update [editorial; comment]. Clin Exp Allergy 28: 387--391.
  739. Thomas WR (1993): Mite allergen groups I-VII. A catalogue of enzymes. Clin Exp Allergy 23: 350--353.
  740. Thompson EA (1981): Optimal sampling for pedigree analysis: relatives of affected probands. Am J Hum Genet 33: 968--977.
  741. Thompson EA, Shaw RG (1990): Pedigree analysis for quantitative traits: variance components without matrix inversion. Biometrics 46: 399--413.
  742. Tomita H, Sato S, Matsuda R, Ogisu N, Mori T, Niimi T, Shimizu S (1998): Genetic polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in asthmatic patients.. Respir Med 92: 1305--1310.
  743. Torres-Galvan MJ, Quiralte J, Blanco C, Castillo R, Carrillo T, Perez-Aciego P, Sanchez-Garcia F (1999): Linkage of house dust mite allergy with the HLA region.. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 82: 198--203.
  744. Tovey ER, Chapman MD, Platt-Mills TAE (1981): Mite faeces are a major source of house dust allergens. Nature 289: 592--593.
  745. Townley RG, Bewtra A, Wilson AF, Hopp RJ, Elston RC, Nair N, Watt GD (1986): Segregation analysis of bronchial response to methacholine challenge in families with and without asthma. J All Clin Immunol 77: 101--107.
  746. Townley RG, Hopp RJ (1987): Inhalation methods for the study of airway responsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol 80: 111--124.
  747. Townley RG, Hopp RJ, Agrawal DK, Bewtra AK (1989): Platelet-activating factor and airway reactivity. J Allergy Clin Immunol 83: 997--1010.
  748. Townley RG, Ryo UY, Kolotkin BM, Kang B (1975): Bronchial sensitivity to methacholine in current and former asthmatic and allergic rhinititis patients and control subjects. J All Clin Immunol 56: 429--442.
  749. Townley RG, Southard JG, Radford P, Hopp RJ, Bewtra AK, Ford L (1990): Association of MS Pi phenotype with airway hyperresponsiveness. Chest 98: 594--599.
  750. Townsend MC (1984): Spirometric forced expiratory volumes measured in the standing versus the sitting posture. Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 123--124.
  751. Trabetti E, Cusin V, Malerba G, Martinati LC, Casartelli A, Boner AL, Pignatti PF (1998): Association of the FcepsilonRIbeta gene with bronchial hyper- responsiveness in an Italian population.. J Med Genet 35: 680--681.
  752. Treloar SA, Martin NG (1990): Age at menarche as a fitness trait: nonadditive genetic variance detected in a large twin study. Am J Hum Genet 47: 137--148.
  753. Trigg CJ, Jhalli N, Herdman MJ, Cundell DR, Thomas JM, Davies RJ (1990): The daily variability of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Eur Resp J 3: 867--871.
  754. Troye-Blomberg M, Fogdell A, El-Ghazali G, Larsson A, Hassan King M, Sisay-Joof F et al (1997): Analysis of the T-cell receptor V-beta usage in monozygotic and dizygotic twins living in a Plasmodium falciparum endemic area in West Africa. Scand J Immunol 45: 541--545.
  755. Tseng RYM, Li CK (1990): Low level atmospheric sulfur dioxide pollution and childhood asthma. Ann Allergy 65: 379--383.
  756. Tullis DCH (1970): Bronchial asthma associated with intestinal parasites. N Engl J Med 282: 370--374.
  757. Turkeltaub PC, Gergen PJ (1989): The risk of adverse reactions from percutaneous prick-puncture allergen skin testing, venipuncture, and body measurements: data from the second National Health and Nutrition Survey 1976-80 (NHANES II). J Allergy Clin Immunol 84: 886--890.
  758. Turkeltaub PC, Gergen PJ (1991): Prevalence of upper and lower respiratory conditions in the US population by social and environmental factors: data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1976-1980 (NHANES II). Ann Allergy 67: 147--154.
  759. Turki J, Pak J, Green SA, Martin RJ, Liggett SB (1994): Genetic polymorphisms of the beta-2-adrenergic receptor in nocturnal and nonnocturnal asthma. J Clin Invest 95: 1635--1641.
  760. Turner KJ, Rosman DL, O'Mahony J (1974): Prevalence and familial association of atopic disease and its relationship to serum IgE level in 1,061 school children and their families. Int Arch Allergy 47: 650--664.
  761. Turton CWG, Morris L, Buckingham JA, Lawler SD (1979): Histocompatibility antigens in asthma: population and family studies. Thorax 34: 670--676.
  762. VanArsdel PP, Motulsky AG (1959): Frequency and hereditability of asthma and allergic rhinitis in college students. Acta Genet 9: 101--114.
  763. van der Velden VH, Naber BA, Wierenga-Wolf AF, Debets R, Savelkoul HF, Overbeek SE, Hoogsteden HC, Versnel MA (1998): Interleukin 4 receptors on human bronchial epithelial cells. An in vivo and in vitro analysis of expression and function.. Cytokine 10: 803--813.
  764. van Herwerden L, Harrap SB, Wong ZYH, Abramson MJ, Kutin JJ, Forbes AB et al (1995): Linkage of high-affinity IgE receptor gene with bronchial hyperreactivity, even in the absence of atopy. Lancet 346: 1262--1265.
  765. Vaupel JW, Manton KG, Stallard E (1979): The impact of heterogeneity in individual frailty on the dynamics of mortality. Demography 16: 439--454.
  766. Velu R, MB Rao (1990): Estimation of parent-offspring correlation. Biometrika 77: 557--562.
  767. Vena JE, Bona JR, Byers TE, Middleton E, Swanson MK, Graham S (1985): Allergy-related diseases and cancer: an inverse association. Am J Epidemiol 122: 66--74.
  768. Venables KM, Dally MB, Nunn AJ, Stevens JF, Stephens R, Farrer N et al (1989): Smoking and occupational allergy in workers in a platinum refinery. Br Med J 299: 939--942.
  769. Verity CM, Vanheule B, Carswell F, Hughes AO (1984): Bronchial lability and skin reactivity in siblings of asthmatic children. Arch Dis Child 59: 871--876.
  770. Vesterinen E, Kaprio J, Koskenvuo M (1989): Prospective study of asthma in relation to smoking habits among 14 729 adults. Thorax 43: 534--539.
  771. Vitteta ES, Berton MT, Burger C, Kepron M, Lee WT, Yin X-M (1991): Memory B and T cells. Ann Rev Immunol 9: 193--217.
  772. Vlietinck R, Derom R, Neale, MC, Maes H, van Loon H, Derom C, Thiery M (1989): Genetic and environmental variation in the birth weight of twins. Behav Genet 19: 151--161.
  773. Vogler GP (1985): Multivariate path analysis of familial resemblance. Genet Epidemiol 2: 35--53.
  774. von Mutius E, Fritzch C, Weiland SK, Rull G, Magnussen H (1992): Prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders among children in united Germany: a descriptive comparison. Clin Exp Allerg 99: 99--99.
  775. von Mutius E, Nicholai T (1996): Familial aggregation of asthma in a South Bavarian population. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 153: 1266--1272.
  776. Waite DA, Eyles EF, Tonkin SL, O'Donnell TV (1980): Asthma prevalence in Tokelauan children in two environments. Clin Allergy 10: 71--75.
  777. Walker C, Virchow J-C, Bruijnzeel PLB, Blaser K (1991): T cell subsets and their soluble products regulate eosinophilia in allergic and nonallergic asthma. J Immunol 146: 1829--1835.
  778. Walley AJ, Cookson WOCM (1996): Investigation of an interleukin-4 promoter polymorphism for associations with asthma and atopy. J Med Genet 33: 689--692.
  779. Walter MA, Chamber CA, Zimmerman B, Cox DW (1990): A multigene deletion in the immunoglobulin heavy chain region in a highly atopic individual. Hum Genet 85: 643--647.
  780. Ward PJ (1993): Some developments on the affected-pedigree-member method of linkage analysis. Am J Hum Genet 52: 1200--1215.
  781. Ward PJ, Bonaiti-Pellie C (1995): Measuring gene-disease association using a general pair method. Genet Epidemiol 12: 681--686.
  782. Watson M, Lawrence S, Collins A, Beasley R, Doull I, Begishvili B, Lampe F, Holgate ST, Morton NE (1995): Exclusion from proximal 11q of a common gene with megaphenic effect on atopy. Ann Hum Genet 59: 403--411.
  783. Weinstein R, Gurvitz M, Weinstein A, Solomon W, Pieper DR (1990): Handedness in children of asthmatic mothers [abstract]. Am Rev Respir Dis 141: 300.
  784. Weir TD, Mallek N, Sandford AJ, Bai TR, Awadh N, Fitzgerald JM, Cockcroft D, James A, Liggett SB, Pare PD (1998): beta2-Adrenergic receptor haplotypes in mild, moderate and fatal/near fatal asthma.. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 158: 787--791.
  785. Weiss ST (1999): Gene by environment interaction and asthma.. Clin Exp Allergy 29 Suppl 2: 96--99.
  786. Weiss ST, Tager IB, Munoz A, Speizer FE (1985): The relationship of respiratory infections in early childhood to the occurrence of increased levels of bronchial responsiveness and atopy. Am Rev Respir Dis 131: 573--578.
  787. Welliver RC, Sun M, Rinaldo D, Ogra PL (1986): Predictive value of respiratory syncytial virus-specific IgE responses for recurrent wheezing following bronchiolitis. J Pediatr 109: 776--780.
  788. Welliver RC, Wong DT, Middleton E, Sun M, McCarthy N, Ogra PL (1981): The development of respiratory syncitial virus-specific IgE responses for recurrent wheezing following bronchiolitis. N Engl J Med 305: 841--846.
  789. Whincup PH, Cook DG, Strachan DP, Papacosta O (1993): Time trends in respiratory symptoms in childhood over a 24 year period. Arch Dis Child 68: 729--734.
  790. White H (1980): A heteroskedasticity-consistent covariance matrix and a direct test for heteroskedasticity. Econometrica 48: 817--838.
  791. Whitfield JB, Martin NG (1985): Genetic and environmental influences on the size and number of cells in the blood. Genet Epidemiol 2: 133--144.
  792. Whitfield JB, Martin NG (1985): Individual differences in plasma ALT, AST and GGT: contributions of genetic and environmental factors, including alcohol consumption. Enzyme 33: 61--69.
  793. Whittemore AS, Halpern J (1994): A class of tests for linkage using affected pedigree members. Biometrics 50: 118--127.
  794. Wiener AS (1932): Method of measuring linkage in human genetics with special reference to blood groups. Genetics 17: 335--350.
  795. Wiener AS, Zieve I, Fries JH (1936): The inheritance of allergic disease. Ann Eugen 7: 141--162.
  796. Wieranga EA, Snoek M, Bos JD, Jansen HM, Kapsenberg ML (1990): Functional subsets of human CD4+ T lymphocytes and the relevance in atopic disease [abstract]. Clin Exp All 20(Suppl 1): 6.
  797. Wiggs BR, Bosken C, Pare PD, James A, Hogg JC (1992): A model of airway narrowing in asthma and in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 145: 1251--1258.
  798. Wilkinson J, Grimley S, Collins A, Thomas NS, Holgate ST, Morton N (1998): Linkage of asthma to markers on chromosome 12 in a sample of 240 families using quantitative phenotype scores.. Genomics 53: 251--259.
  799. Wilkinson J, Thomas NS, Morton N, Holgate ST (1999): Candidate gene and mutational analysis in asthma and atopy.. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 118: 265--267.
  800. Williams CS, Buss KA, Eskenazi B (1992): Infant resuscitation is associated with an increased risk of left-handedness. Am J Epidemiol 136: 277--286.
  801. Williams H, McNichol KN (1969): Prevalence, natural history, and relationship of wheezy bronchitis and asthma in children. An epidemiological study. Br Med J iv: 321--325.
  802. Williams HC, Burney PGJ, Hay RJ, Archer CB, Shipley MJ, Hunter JJ et al (1994): The UK Working Party's diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. I. Derivation of a minimum set of discriminators for atopic dermatitis. Brit J Dermatol 131: 383--96.
  803. Williams HC, Burney PGJ, Pembroke AC, Hay RJ (1994): The UK Working Party's diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. III. Independent hospital validation. Brit J Dermatol 131: 406--16.
  804. Williams HC, Burney PGJ, Pembroke AC, Hay RJ (1996): Validation of the UK diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis in a population setting. Brit J Dermatol 135: 12--7.
  805. Williams HC, Burney PGJ, Strachan D, Hay RJ (1994): The UK Working Party's diagnostic criteria for atopic dermatitis. II. Observer variation of clinical diagnosis and signs of atopic dermatitis. Brit J Dermatol 131: 397--405.
  806. Williams HC, Strachan DP, Hay RJ (1994): Childhood eczema: disease of the advantaged. Brit Med J 308: 1132--1135.
  807. Wjst M, Immervoll T (1998): An Internet linkage and mutation database for the complex phenotype asthma.. Bioinformatics 14: 827--828.
  808. Woolcock AJ, Dowse GK, Temple K, Stanley H, Alpers MP, Turner KJ (1983): The prevalence of asthma in the South Fore people in Papua New Guinea. A method for field studies of bronchial reactivity. Eur J Resp Dis 64: 571--581.
  809. Woolcock AJ, Peat JK, Salome CM, Yan K, Anderson SD, Schoeffel RB, McCowage G, Killalea T (1987): Prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma in a rural adult population. Thorax 42: 361--368.
  810. Woolcock AJ, Salome CM, Yan K (1984): The shape of the dose-response curve to histamine in asthmatic and normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 130: 71--75.
  811. Wright GLT, Derrick EH (1975): The role of allergens in the aetiology of asthma in Brisbane. Med J Aust 1: 375--380.
  812. Wright JL, Lawson LM, Pare PR, Kennedy S, Wiggs B, Hogg JC (1984): The detection of small airways disease. Rev Respir Dis 129: 989--994.
  813. Wright S (1920): The relative importance of heredity and environment in determining the piebald pattern of guinea pigs. Proc Nat Acad Sci 6: 320--332.
  814. Wright S (1934): An analysis of variability in numbers of digits in an inbred strain of guinea pigs differing in number of digits. Genetics 19: 506--536.
  815. Wuthrich B, Baumann E, Fries RA, Schnyder UW (1981): Total and specific IgE (RAST) in atopic twins. Clin Allergy 11: 147--154.
  816. Xu J, Wiesch DG, Meyers DA (1998): Genetics of complex human diseases: genome screening, association studies and fine mapping.. Clin Exp Allergy 28 Suppl 5: 1--5.
  817. Yan K, Salome C, Woolcock AJ (1983): Rapid method for measurement of bronchial responsiveness. Thorax 38: 760--765.
  818. Yang L, Cohn L, Zhang DH, Homer R, Ray A, Ray P (1998): Essential role of nuclear factor kappaB in the induction of eosinophilia in allergic airway inflammation.. J Exp Med 188: 1739--1750.
  819. Young C, Bhalla DK (1995): Effects of ozone on the epithelial and inflammatory responses in the airways: role of tumor necrosis factor. J Toxicol Environ Health 46: 329--342.
  820. Young R, Hart BJ, Merrett TG, Read AF, Hopkin J (1992): House dust mite sensitivity: interaction of genetics and allergen dosage. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 205--211.
  821. Young R, Sharp P, Faux J, Cookson W, Hopkin J (1992): House dust mite sensitivity: the mode of inheritance by segregation analysis [abstract]. Clin Exp Allergy 22: 118.
  822. Young RP, Sharp PA, Lynch JR, Faux JA, Lathrop GM, Cookson WOCM et al (1992): Confirmation of genetic linkage between atopic IgE response and chromosome 11q13. J Med Genet 29: 236--238.
  823. Zamel N, Leroux M, Vanderdoelen JL (1984): Airway responses to inhaled methacholine in healthy nonsmoking twins. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise Physiol 56: 936--939.
  824. Zeiss CR (1991): Reactive chemicals in industrial asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 87: 755--761.
  825. Zhang LY, Levitt RC, Kleeberger SR (1995): Differential susceptibility to ozone-induced airways hyperreactivity in inbred strains of mice. Exp Med Res 21: 503--18.
  826. Zieve I, Wiener AS, Fries JH (1936): On the linkage relations of the genes for allergic disease and the genes determining the blood groups, MN types and eye colour in man. Ann Eugen 7: 163--178.
  827. Zimmermann N, Bernstein JA, Rothenberg ME (1998): Polymorphisms in the human CC chemokine receptor-3 gene.. Biochim Biophys Acta 1442: 170--176.
  828. Zwollo P, Ansari AA, Marsh DG (1989): Association of Class II DNA restriction fragments with responsiveness to Ambrosia artemisiifolia (short ragweed)-pollen allergen Amb a V in ragweed-allergic patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 83: 45--54.