Genetic Epidemiology, Psychiatric Genetics, Asthma Genetics and Statistical Genetics Laboratories investigate the pattern of disease in families, particularly identical and non-identical twins, to assess the relative importance of genes and environment in a variety of important health problems.
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PMID
29530109
TITLE
The Nature of Nurture: Using a Virtual-Parent Design to Test Parenting Effects on Children's Educational Attainment in Genotyped Families.
ABSTRACT
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required. Here, we utilize the fact that parents pass, at random, 50% of their genome to a given offspring to create independent scores for the transmitted alleles (conventional EA PRS) and a parental score based on alleles not transmitted to the offspring (EA VP_PRS). The formal effect of non-transmitted alleles on offspring attainment was tested in 2,333 genotyped twins for whom high-quality measures of EA, assessed at age 17 years, were available, and whose parents were also genotyped. Four key findings were observed. First, the EA PRS and EA VP_PRS were empirically independent, validating the virtual-parent design. Second, in this family-based design, children's own EA PRS significantly predicted their EA (β = 0.15), ruling out stratification confounds as a cause of the association of attainment with the EA PRS. Third, parental EA PRS predicted the SES environment parents provided to offspring (β = 0.20), and parental SES and offspring EA were significantly associated (β = 0.33). This would suggest that the EA PRS is at least as strongly linked to social competence as it is to EA, leading to higher attained SES in parents and, therefore, a higher experienced SES for children. In a full structural equation model taking account of family genetic relatedness across multiple siblings the non-transmitted allele effects were estimated at similar values; but, in this more complex model, confidence intervals included zero. A test using the forthcoming EA3 PRS may clarify this outcome. The virtual-parent method may be applied to clarify causality in other phenotypes where observational evidence suggests parenting may moderate expression of other outcomes, for instance in psychiatry.
DATE PUBLISHED
2018 Mar 13
HISTORY
PUBSTATUS PUBSTATUSDATE
entrez 2018/03/14 06:00
pubmed 2018/03/14 06:00
medline 2018/03/14 06:00
AUTHORS
NAME COLLECTIVENAME LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION AFFILIATIONINFO
Bates TC Bates Timothy C TC Department of Psychology,University of Edinburgh,Edinburgh,UK.
Maher BS Maher Brion S BS Bloomberg School of Public Health,Johns Hopkins,Baltimore,MD,USA.
Medland SE Medland Sarah E SE Genetic Epidemiology,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.
McAloney K McAloney Kerrie K Genetic Epidemiology,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.
Wright MJ Wright Margaret J MJ Queensland Brain Institute,University of Queensland,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.
Hansell NK Hansell Narelle K NK Queensland Brain Institute,University of Queensland,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.
Kendler KS Kendler Kenneth S KS Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
Martin NG Martin Nicholas G NG Genetic Epidemiology,QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute,Brisbane,Queensland,Australia.
Gillespie NA Gillespie Nathan A NA Virginia Institute of Psychiatric and Behavioral Genetics,Virginia Commonwealth University,Richmond,VA,USA.
INVESTIGATORS
JOURNAL
VOLUME:
ISSUE:
TITLE: Twin research and human genetics : the official journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
ISOABBREVIATION: Twin Res Hum Genet
YEAR: 2018
MONTH: Mar
DAY: 13
MEDLINEDATE:
SEASON:
CITEDMEDIUM: Internet
ISSN: 1832-4274
ISSNTYPE: Print
MEDLINE JOURNAL
MEDLINETA: Twin Res Hum Genet
COUNTRY: England
ISSNLINKING: 1832-4274
NLMUNIQUEID: 101244624
PUBLICATION TYPE
PUBLICATIONTYPE TEXT
Journal Article
COMMENTS AND CORRECTIONS
GRANTS
GENERAL NOTE
KEYWORDS
KEYWORD
educational attainment
non-transmitted genotype
parental environment
virtual-parent design
MESH HEADINGS
SUPPLEMENTARY MESH
GENE SYMBOLS
CHEMICALS
OTHER ID's