Genetic Epidemiology, Psychiatric Genetics, Asthma Genetics and Statistical Genetics Laboratories investigate the pattern of disease in families, particularly identical and non-identical twins, to assess the relative importance of genes and environment in a variety of important health problems.
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PMID
23972999
TITLE
Is the relationship between early-onset cannabis use and educational attainment causal or due to common liability?
ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND NlmCategory: BACKGROUND
Several studies have shown that early cannabis use is correlated with poor educational performance including high school drop-out. The predominant explanation for this relationship is that cannabis use causes disengagement from education. Another explanation is that the association between early cannabis use and educational attainment is not causal, but the result of overlapping risk factors that increase the likelihood of both early cannabis use and disengagement from education. These confounding factors could be of genetic and/or environmental origin.
METHODS NlmCategory: METHODS
Here we use data from a large community-based sample of adult twins (N=3337) who completed a comprehensive semi-structured telephone interview. We first apply the classical twin-design to determine whether genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the relationship between early-onset cannabis use (prior to age 18) and early school leaving. Next, with a co-twin control design we investigate whether the relationship between the two variables is more likely due to direct causality or overlapping risk factors.
RESULTS NlmCategory: RESULTS
We find a significant phenotypic correlation between early-onset cannabis use and early school leaving (r=0.26), which could be explained by familial influences (of genetic and/or shared environmental origin). The pattern of odds ratios found in the co-twin control design is not consistent with direct causation, but rather suggests that the association is due to shared environmental factors influencing both variables.
CONCLUSION NlmCategory: CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that the relationship between early-onset cannabis use and school leaving is due to shared environmental risk factors influencing both the risk of early-onset cannabis use and early school leaving.
Copyright 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
DATE PUBLISHED
2013 Dec 1
HISTORY
PUBSTATUS PUBSTATUSDATE
received 2013/04/10
revised 2013/06/12
accepted 2013/07/29
aheadofprint 2013/08/11
entrez 2013/08/27 06:00
pubmed 2013/08/27 06:00
medline 2014/06/24 06:00
AUTHORS
NAME COLLECTIVENAME LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION AFFILIATIONINFO
Verweij KJ Verweij Karin J H KJ VU University, Department of Developmental Psychology and EMGO Institute for Health and Care Research, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address: karin.verweij@vu.nl.
Huizink AC Huizink Anja C AC
Agrawal A Agrawal Arpana A
Martin NG Martin Nicholas G NG
Lynskey MT Lynskey Michael T MT
INVESTIGATORS
JOURNAL
VOLUME: 133
ISSUE: 2
TITLE: Drug and alcohol dependence
ISOABBREVIATION: Drug Alcohol Depend
YEAR: 2013
MONTH: Dec
DAY: 1
MEDLINEDATE:
SEASON:
CITEDMEDIUM: Internet
ISSN: 1879-0046
ISSNTYPE: Electronic
MEDLINE JOURNAL
MEDLINETA: Drug Alcohol Depend
COUNTRY: Ireland
ISSNLINKING: 0376-8716
NLMUNIQUEID: 7513587
PUBLICATION TYPE
PUBLICATIONTYPE TEXT
Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Twin Study
COMMENTS AND CORRECTIONS
REFTYPE REFSOURCE REFPMID NOTE
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GRANTS
GRANTID AGENCY COUNTRY
DA18267 NIDA NIH HHS United States
DA18660 NIDA NIH HHS United States
DA23668 NIDA NIH HHS United States
K02 DA032573 NIDA NIH HHS United States
R01 DA018267 NIDA NIH HHS United States
R01 DA018660 NIDA NIH HHS United States
R01 DA023668 NIDA NIH HHS United States
GENERAL NOTE
KEYWORDS
KEYWORD
Cannabis
Education
Environment
Genetics
School drop-out
Twin research
MESH HEADINGS
DESCRIPTORNAME QUALIFIERNAME
Adolescent
Adult
Educational Status
Environment
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Marijuana Abuse psychology
Models, Genetic psychology
Prevalence psychology
Risk Factors psychology
Social Environment psychology
Student Dropouts psychology
Twins psychology
Twins, Dizygotic psychology
Twins, Monozygotic psychology
Young Adult psychology
SUPPLEMENTARY MESH
GENE SYMBOLS
CHEMICALS
OTHER ID's
OTHERID SOURCE
NIHMS514759 NLM
PMC3818343 NLM