Genetic Epidemiology, Translational Neurogenomics, Psychiatric Genetics and Statistical Genetics Laboratories investigate the pattern of disease in families, particularly identical and non-identical twins, to assess the relative importance of genes and environment in a variety of important health problems.
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PMID
23722424
TITLE
GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.
ABSTRACT
A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics.
DATE PUBLISHED
2013 Jun 21
HISTORY
PUBSTATUS PUBSTATUSDATE
aheadofprint 2013/05/30
entrez 2013/06/01 06:00
pubmed 2013/06/01 06:00
medline 2013/07/03 06:00
AUTHORS
NAME COLLECTIVENAME LASTNAME FORENAME INITIALS AFFILIATION AFFILIATIONINFO
Rietveld CA Rietveld Cornelius A CA Department of Applied Economics, Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
Medland SE Medland Sarah E SE
Derringer J Derringer Jaime J
Yang J Yang Jian J
Esko T Esko Tõnu T
Martin NW Martin Nicolas W NW
Westra HJ Westra Harm-Jan HJ
Shakhbazov K Shakhbazov Konstantin K
Abdellaoui A Abdellaoui Abdel A
Agrawal A Agrawal Arpana A
Albrecht E Albrecht Eva E
Alizadeh BZ Alizadeh Behrooz Z BZ
Amin N Amin Najaf N
Barnard J Barnard John J
Baumeister SE Baumeister Sebastian E SE
Benke KS Benke Kelly S KS
Bielak LF Bielak Lawrence F LF
Boatman JA Boatman Jeffrey A JA
Boyle PA Boyle Patricia A PA
Davies G Davies Gail G
de Leeuw C de Leeuw Christiaan C
Eklund N Eklund Niina N
Evans DS Evans Daniel S DS
Ferhmann R Ferhmann Rudolf R
Fischer K Fischer Krista K
Gieger C Gieger Christian C
Gjessing HK Gjessing Håkon K HK
Hägg S Hägg Sara S
Harris JR Harris Jennifer R JR
Hayward C Hayward Caroline C
Holzapfel C Holzapfel Christina C
Ibrahim-Verbaas CA Ibrahim-Verbaas Carla A CA
Ingelsson E Ingelsson Erik E
Jacobsson B Jacobsson Bo B
Joshi PK Joshi Peter K PK
Jugessur A Jugessur Astanand A
Kaakinen M Kaakinen Marika M
Kanoni S Kanoni Stavroula S
Karjalainen J Karjalainen Juha J
Kolcic I Kolcic Ivana I
Kristiansson K Kristiansson Kati K
Kutalik Z Kutalik Zoltán Z
Lahti J Lahti Jari J
Lee SH Lee Sang H SH
Lin P Lin Peng P
Lind PA Lind Penelope A PA
Liu Y Liu Yongmei Y
Lohman K Lohman Kurt K
Loitfelder M Loitfelder Marisa M
McMahon G McMahon George G
Vidal PM Vidal Pedro Marques PM
Meirelles O Meirelles Osorio O
Milani L Milani Lili L
Myhre R Myhre Ronny R
Nuotio ML Nuotio Marja-Liisa ML
Oldmeadow CJ Oldmeadow Christopher J CJ
Petrovic KE Petrovic Katja E KE
Peyrot WJ Peyrot Wouter J WJ
Polasek O Polasek Ozren O
Quaye L Quaye Lydia L
Reinmaa E Reinmaa Eva E
Rice JP Rice John P JP
Rizzi TS Rizzi Thais S TS
Schmidt H Schmidt Helena H
Schmidt R Schmidt Reinhold R
Smith AV Smith Albert V AV
Smith JA Smith Jennifer A JA
Tanaka T Tanaka Toshiko T
Terracciano A Terracciano Antonio A
van der Loos MJ van der Loos Matthijs J H M MJ
Vitart V Vitart Veronique V
Völzke H Völzke Henry H
Wellmann J Wellmann Jürgen J
Yu L Yu Lei L
Zhao W Zhao Wei W
Allik J Allik Jüri J
Attia JR Attia John R JR
Bandinelli S Bandinelli Stefania S
Bastardot F Bastardot François F
Beauchamp J Beauchamp Jonathan J
Bennett DA Bennett David A DA
Berger K Berger Klaus K
Bierut LJ Bierut Laura J LJ
Boomsma DI Boomsma Dorret I DI
Bültmann U Bültmann Ute U
Campbell H Campbell Harry H
Chabris CF Chabris Christopher F CF
Cherkas L Cherkas Lynn L
Chung MK Chung Mina K MK
Cucca F Cucca Francesco F
de Andrade M de Andrade Mariza M
De Jager PL De Jager Philip L PL
De Neve JE De Neve Jan-Emmanuel JE
Deary IJ Deary Ian J IJ
Dedoussis GV Dedoussis George V GV
Deloukas P Deloukas Panos P
Dimitriou M Dimitriou Maria M
Eiríksdóttir G Eiríksdóttir Guðny G
Elderson MF Elderson Martin F MF
Eriksson JG Eriksson Johan G JG
Evans DM Evans David M DM
Faul JD Faul Jessica D JD
Ferrucci L Ferrucci Luigi L
Garcia ME Garcia Melissa E ME
Grönberg H Grönberg Henrik H
Guðnason V Guðnason Vilmundur V
Hall P Hall Per P
Harris JM Harris Juliette M JM
Harris TB Harris Tamara B TB
Hastie ND Hastie Nicholas D ND
Heath AC Heath Andrew C AC
Hernandez DG Hernandez Dena G DG
Hoffmann W Hoffmann Wolfgang W
Hofman A Hofman Adriaan A
Holle R Holle Rolf R
Holliday EG Holliday Elizabeth G EG
Hottenga JJ Hottenga Jouke-Jan JJ
Iacono WG Iacono William G WG
Illig T Illig Thomas T
Järvelin MR Järvelin Marjo-Riitta MR
Kähönen M Kähönen Mika M
Kaprio J Kaprio Jaakko J
Kirkpatrick RM Kirkpatrick Robert M RM
Kowgier M Kowgier Matthew M
Latvala A Latvala Antti A
Launer LJ Launer Lenore J LJ
Lawlor DA Lawlor Debbie A DA
Lehtimäki T Lehtimäki Terho T
Li J Li Jingmei J
Lichtenstein P Lichtenstein Paul P
Lichtner P Lichtner Peter P
Liewald DC Liewald David C DC
Madden PA Madden Pamela A PA
Magnusson PK Magnusson Patrik K E PK
Mäkinen TE Mäkinen Tomi E TE
Masala M Masala Marco M
McGue M McGue Matt M
Metspalu A Metspalu Andres A
Mielck A Mielck Andreas A
Miller MB Miller Michael B MB
Montgomery GW Montgomery Grant W GW
Mukherjee S Mukherjee Sutapa S
Nyholt DR Nyholt Dale R DR
Oostra BA Oostra Ben A BA
Palmer LJ Palmer Lyle J LJ
Palotie A Palotie Aarno A
Penninx BW Penninx Brenda W J H BW
Perola M Perola Markus M
Peyser PA Peyser Patricia A PA
Preisig M Preisig Martin M
Räikkönen K Räikkönen Katri K
Raitakari OT Raitakari Olli T OT
Realo A Realo Anu A
Ring SM Ring Susan M SM
Ripatti S Ripatti Samuli S
Rivadeneira F Rivadeneira Fernando F
Rudan I Rudan Igor I
Rustichini A Rustichini Aldo A
Salomaa V Salomaa Veikko V
Sarin AP Sarin Antti-Pekka AP
Schlessinger D Schlessinger David D
Scott RJ Scott Rodney J RJ
Snieder H Snieder Harold H
St Pourcain B St Pourcain Beate B
Starr JM Starr John M JM
Sul JH Sul Jae Hoon JH
Surakka I Surakka Ida I
Svento R Svento Rauli R
Teumer A Teumer Alexander A
LifeLines Cohort Study
Tiemeier H Tiemeier Henning H
van Rooij FJ van Rooij Frank J A FJ
Van Wagoner DR Van Wagoner David R DR
Vartiainen E Vartiainen Erkki E
Viikari J Viikari Jorma J
Vollenweider P Vollenweider Peter P
Vonk JM Vonk Judith M JM
Waeber G Waeber Gérard G
Weir DR Weir David R DR
Wichmann HE Wichmann H-Erich HE
Widen E Widen Elisabeth E
Willemsen G Willemsen Gonneke G
Wilson JF Wilson James F JF
Wright AF Wright Alan F AF
Conley D Conley Dalton D
Davey-Smith G Davey-Smith George G
Franke L Franke Lude L
Groenen PJ Groenen Patrick J F PJ
Hofman A Hofman Albert A
Johannesson M Johannesson Magnus M
Kardia SL Kardia Sharon L R SL
Krueger RF Krueger Robert F RF
Laibson D Laibson David D
Martin NG Martin Nicholas G NG
Meyer MN Meyer Michelle N MN
Posthuma D Posthuma Danielle D
Thurik AR Thurik A Roy AR
Timpson NJ Timpson Nicholas J NJ
Uitterlinden AG Uitterlinden André G AG
van Duijn CM van Duijn Cornelia M CM
Visscher PM Visscher Peter M PM
Benjamin DJ Benjamin Daniel J DJ
Cesarini D Cesarini David D
Koellinger PD Koellinger Philipp D PD
INVESTIGATORS
JOURNAL
VOLUME: 340
ISSUE: 6139
TITLE: Science (New York, N.Y.)
ISOABBREVIATION: Science
YEAR: 2013
MONTH: Jun
DAY: 21
MEDLINEDATE:
SEASON:
CITEDMEDIUM: Internet
ISSN: 1095-9203
ISSNTYPE: Electronic
MEDLINE JOURNAL
MEDLINETA: Science
COUNTRY: United States
ISSNLINKING: 0036-8075
NLMUNIQUEID: 0404511
PUBLICATION TYPE
PUBLICATIONTYPE TEXT
Journal Article
Meta-Analysis
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
COMMENTS AND CORRECTIONS
REFTYPE REFSOURCE REFPMID NOTE
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CommentIn Science. 2013 Jun 21;340(6139):1416-7 23788790
GRANTS
GRANTID AGENCY COUNTRY
AA09367 NIAAA NIH HHS United States
AA11886 NIAAA NIH HHS United States
BB/F019394/1 Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council United Kingdom
CZB/4/710 Chief Scientist Office United Kingdom
DA024417 NIDA NIH HHS United States
DA029377 NIDA NIH HHS United States
DA05147 NIDA NIH HHS United States
DA13240 NIDA NIH HHS United States
ETM/55 Chief Scientist Office United Kingdom
F31 DA029377 NIDA NIH HHS United States
G0600705 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
G0700704 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
G9815508 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
K05 AA017688 NIAAA NIH HHS United States
MC_PC_15018 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
MC_PC_U127561128 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/1 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/3 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
MC_UU_12013/5 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
MH016880 NIMH NIH HHS United States
MH066140 NIMH NIH HHS United States
MR/K026992/1 Medical Research Council United Kingdom
P01 AG005842 NIA NIH HHS United States
P01 CA089392 NCI NIH HHS United States
P01 GM099568 NIGMS NIH HHS United States
P01-AG005842 NIA NIH HHS United States
P01-AG005842-20S2 NIA NIH HHS United States
P30 AG012810 NIA NIH HHS United States
P30-AG012810 NIA NIH HHS United States
R01 AA009367 NIAAA NIH HHS United States
R01 AA011886 NIAAA NIH HHS United States
R01 DA013240 NIDA NIH HHS United States
R01 HL090620 NHLBI NIH HHS United States
R01 HL105756 NHLBI NIH HHS United States
R01 HL111314 NHLBI NIH HHS United States
R01 MH066140 NIMH NIH HHS United States
R37 DA005147 NIDA NIH HHS United States
T32 AG000186 NIA NIH HHS United States
T32 MH016880 NIMH NIH HHS United States
T32-AG000186-23 NIA NIH HHS United States
U01 AG009740 NIA NIH HHS United States
U01 DA024417 NIDA NIH HHS United States
Z01 AG001050-01 Intramural NIH HHS United States
ZIA AG000196-03 Intramural NIH HHS United States
ZIA AG000196-04 Intramural NIH HHS United States
GENERAL NOTE
KEYWORDS
MESH HEADINGS
DESCRIPTORNAME QUALIFIERNAME
Cognition
Educational Status
Endophenotypes
Female
Genetic Loci
Genome-Wide Association Study
Humans
Male
Multifactorial Inheritance
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
SUPPLEMENTARY MESH
GENE SYMBOLS
CHEMICALS
OTHER ID's
OTHERID SOURCE
NIHMS495960 NLM
PMC3751588 NLM